1 Vandalism 1. 0 Introduction1. 1 ObjectiveThis report has several objectives:• Define vandalism• To analyse the social problem of vandalism in Malaysia• Consider what makes people commit acts of vandalism• Examine the impact on the community• Discuss strategies to prevent vandalism1. 2 Structure of the reportThis report start with define the meaning of one of the social problems in Malaysia which isvandalism and more information about vandalism. The body include the main causes of vandalism, impact of the problem to our society and theways to solve this problem.

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Under conclusion, we summarize all the main points and make some appropriaterecommendations in order to prevent social problem of vandalism in our society frombecome worse. 1. 3 VandalismVandalism is the intentional abuse, damage or destruction of any portion of someone else’s property or common or shared property such as our residential facilities, furnishings orpublic property. Though vandalism is usually the result of a deliberate act, itcan also occur as a result of neglect or lack of consideration for fellow residents.

It includes behavior such as breaking windows, slashing tires, spray painting onpublic places with graffiti, removing an exit sign and etc. Vandalism is amalicious act and may reflect personal ill will, although the perpetrators neednot know their victim to commit vandalism. The recklessness of the act imputesboth intent and malice. Because the destruction of public and private property poses a threat to society,modern statutes make vandalism a crime. The penalties upon conviction may bea fine, a jail sentence, an order to pay for repairs or replacement, or all three.

Inhttp://www. oppapers. com/essays/Vandalism/17109616/12/2010 addition, a person who commits vandalism may be sued in a civil tort action fordamages so that the damaged property can be repaired or replaced. 2. 0 Vandalism A problem that occurs in most states is vandalism. Vandalism is a growing nationalproblem. Last year this senseless crime cost United States Citizens over one billion dollars. Vandalism is a problem that gets to everyone in some form or another. It can affect your family, friends, property, community, and your pocketbook.

The more you know aboutvandalism, the more you can make it a crime that is more trouble than it’s worth. Over one half of all the crimes associated with vandalism occurs in high schools. There is notypical vandal. Vandals can be good or bad students, girls or boys, whites or blacks, rich or poor. The largest age group arrested for vandalism is between 13 and 14. However, childrenas young six and seven vandalize schools and park areas. Teenagers with growing-upproblems act destructively by destroying vehicles, spray-painting graffiti on public places,etc.

Older youths often commit more serious acts such as damaging vehicles or machinery,burglary, arson or theft. Although most vandals do not have a clear motive for theiracts, studies show that basic social problems and attitudes are at the root of thevandalism. Among the many explanations for the crime are anger againstsociety, boredom, drug and alcohol abuse, disciplinary problems, personalproblems and racial/political conflicts. Police, fire and emergency services are affected by increased workloads andfalse alarms. Also, facilities, such as parks and public rest rooms which everyonein the community uses, become vandalized.

Vandalism affects your pocketbooktoo. People pay their taxes for a reason, to build a better community for thefuture generation. When the community is vandalized, the people are the oneswho have to pay for someone else’s damage. Vandalism is still and will always be a growing problem unless we do somethingabout it. We need to keep our kids off the streets, make sure you educate themabout vandalism by telling then that is wrong and can lead to… http://www. oppapers. com/essays/Vandalism/17109616/12/2010 School vandalism: individual and social context. y Tamar Horowitz , David TobalyVarious disciplines such as psychology and sociology have examined vandalism from differentperspectives, and it is difficult to reach consensus on a definition. Nevertheless, some of thedefinitions have common elements, such as: “an intentional act aimed at damaging or destroyingan object that is another’s property” (Moser, 1992); “a voluntary degradation of the environmentwith no profit motive whatsoever, the results of which are considered damage by the actor(s) aswell as the victim in relation to the norms that govern the ituation” (Goldstein, 1996, p. 19); and”the willful or malicious destruction, injury, disfigurement, or defacement of property withoutthe consent of the owner” (Casserly, Bass, ; Garrett, 1982, p. 4). Most of the definitionshighlight intentionality, destructiveness, and property ownership. This form of destructivebehavior is thus motivated not by profit but by other factors. Cohen (1984) suggests that acts of vandalism are motivated by anger, boredom, catharsis, erosion of alrea dy damaged objects, or aesthetic factors.

Research on vandalism is divided into two categories. Some studies look at vandalism from thepoint of view of the individual who commits it: personal traits, difficulties in adjusting to societyat large and to school in particular, and emotional problems. This perspective is derived mainlyfrom epidemiological studies. Other studies look at vandalism in a broader social context. Research on vandalism as a social phenomenon began in the 1930s with ecological studies by theChicago School.

Vandalism was explained as a malaise of modern society that is characterizedby alienation and meaninglessness. Zimbardo (1969) used the term deindividuation to describe asituation in which individuals lose their uniqueness. According to Zimbardo, the malaise of modern society is related to a high level of social mobility, rapid growth, and instability. Eriksonlooked at modern society from the point of view of adolescents who experience social mores andvalues inconsistently and therefore become involved in nonnormative b ehavior.

According to Casserly, Bass, and Garrett (1982), the social explanations of vandalism until the1970s were too amorphous and unfocused; consequently, their explanatory power was limited. Anew line of explanations began to look at specific institutions, one of them being school. Pioneering research on school violence and school vandalism–the Safe School Study–wasconducted in the mid-1970s (U. S. Department of Health, Education and Welfare, 1978). Thestudy, carried out in approximately 25,000 schools throughout the United States, examinedobjective parameters as well as subjective ones (i. e. , students’ perceptions).

The objectiveparameters found to have an effect on school vandalism were school size, age of the studentpopulation, teacher turnover, and parental support for the school’s discipline policy. The salientsubjective parameters were the students’ views of how their teachers function (e. g. , how fair theyare, whether they use grades to exert power over students) and whether school rules are unambiguous (U. S. Department of Health, Education and Welfare, 1978). Following this major study, research was conducted that focused on the connection betweenvandalism and school effectiveness and climate.

It was found that when school climate was notpositive and did not enhance students’ social welfare, the rate of vandalism was high, and whenthe school did not effectively promote learning, vandalism tended to increase (Zeisel, 1977). Itwas also found that vandalism increased in schools where students did not have a sense of belonging. http://www. oppapers. com/essays/Vandalism/17109616/12/2010 Some researchers have emphasized teacher-student interaction as a causal variable (Heller &White, 1975).

Others have noted that tolerance, respect for others, and motivation to achieve areimportant in mitigating vandalism (Dust, 1984; Geller, 1992). In an Israeli study, Horowitz andAmir (1981) found that students who were involved in vandalism were socially marginal atschool; they felt alienated from school and were low achievers though not necessarily low interms of competence. METHODThe present study on vandalism was carried out in 1999 in four high schools in a medium-sizedIsraeli town. The students in these schools were representative of the social composition of Israel.

The research question was as follows: What factors influence destructive behavior bystudents toward school property? Specifically, is motivation to participate in vandalism related topersonal background, perception of school as an institution, attitude toward teacher, schoolanxiety, sense of hope, perception of school climate, and how discipline is applied? Six hundred eighth and ninth graders responded to the questionnaire, which had six sections. Thefirst section dealt with attitudes toward school and toward the homeroom teacher. Both subscaleswere adapted … http://www. oppapers. com/essays/Vandalism/17109616/12/2010

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