Morpheme From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation, search In linguistics, a morpheme is the smallest component of a word, or other linguistic unit, that has semantic meaning. The term is used as part of the branch of linguistics known as morphology (linguistics). A morpheme is composed by phoneme(s) (the smallest linguistically distinctive units of sound) in spoken language, and by grapheme(s) (the smallest units of written language) in written language. The concept of word and morpheme are different: a morpheme may or may not stand alone.
One or several morphemes compose a word. A morpheme is free if it can stand alone (ex: “lie”, “cake”), or bound if it is used exclusively alongside a free morpheme (ex: “im” in impossible). Its actual phonetic representation is the morph, with the different morphs (“in-“, “im-“) representing the same morpheme being grouped as its allomorphs. English example: The word “unbreakable” has three morphemes: “un-“, a bound morpheme; “break”, a free morpheme; and “-able”, a bound morpheme. un-” is also a prefix, “-able” is a suffix. Both “un-” and “-able” are affixes. The morpheme plural-s has the morph “-s”, /s/, in cats (/k? ts/), but “-es”, /? z/, in dishes (/d??? z/), and even the voiced “-s”, /z/, in dogs (/d?? z/). “-s”. These are allomorphs. Whether or not a word is divided on all available morphemes is debatable. Some morphologists decompose the words completely as it was formed etymologically while others only decompose what there is evidence to decompose in the modern use of the word.
The word “governmental” has either three morphemes: “govern,” a free morpheme: “ment”, a bound morpheme; and “-al”, a bound morpheme. Or, depending on the syntactic framework, it has two morphemes: “government” and “-al. ” The word “predict” has either two morphemes: “pre-” a bound morpheme”, and “dict” a bound morpheme, or one morpheme: “predict” a free morpheme. |Contents | |[hide] | |1 Types of morphemes | |1. Other variants | |2 Morphological analysis | |3 Changing definitions of Morpheme | |4 See also | |5 References | |6 External links | Types of morphemes • Free morphemes, like town and dog, can appear with other lexemes (as in town hall or dog house) or they can stand alone, i. . , “free”. • Bound morphemes like “un-” appear only together with other morphemes to form a lexeme. Bound morphemes in general tend to be prefixes and suffixes. Unproductive, non-affix morphemes that exist only in bound form are known as “cranberry” morphemes, from the “cran” in that very word. • Derivational morphemes can be added to a word to create (derive) another word: the addition of “-ness” to “happy,” for example, to give “happiness. ” They carry semantic information. Inflectional morphemes modify a word’s tense, number, aspect, and so on, without deriving a new word or a word in a new grammatical category (as in the “dog” morpheme if written with the plural marker morpheme “-s” becomes “dogs”). They carry grammatical information. • Allomorphs are variants of a morpheme, e. g. , the plural marker in English is sometimes realized as /-z/, /-s/ or /-? z/ Other variants • Null morpheme • Root morpheme • Word stem Morphological analysis In natural language processing for Japanese, Chinese and other languages, morphological analysis is a process of segmenting a given sentence into a row of morphemes.
It is closely related to Part-of-speech tagging, but word segmentation is required for these languages because word boundaries are not indicated by blank spaces. Famous Japanese morphological analysers include Juman, ChaSen and Mecab. Changing definitions of Morpheme In gennerative grammar the definition of a morpheme depends heavily on whether syntactic trees have morphemes as leafs or features as leafs. • Direct surface to syntax mapping LFG – leafs are words • Direct syntax to semantics mapping Leafs in syntactic trees spell out morphemes: Distributed morphology – leafs are morphemes o Branches in syntactic trees spell out morphemes:Radical Minimalism and Nanosyntax -leafs are “nano” morpho-syntactic features Given the definition of morpheme as “the smallest meaningful unit” Nanosyntax aims to account for idioms where it is often an entire syntactic tree which contributes “the smallest meaningful unit. ” An example idiom is “Don’t let the cat out of the bag” where the idiom is composed of “let the cat out of the bag” and that might be considered a semantic morpheme, which is composed of many syntactic morphemes.
Other cases where the “smallest meaningfull unit” is larger than a word include some collocations such as “in view of” and “business intelligence” where the words together have a specific meaning. The definition of morphemes also play a significant role in the interfaces of generative grammar in the following theoretical constructs; • Event semantics The idea that each productive morpheme must have a compositional semantic meaning (a denotation), and if the meaning is there, there must be a morpheme (null or overt). Spell-out The interface where syntactic/semantic structures are “spelled-out” using words or morphemes with phonological content. This can also be thought of as lexical insertion into the syntactics See also |[pic] |Look up morpheme in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. | Linguistics • International Phonetic Alphabet • Hybrid word • Alternation (linguistics) • Theoretical linguistics • Marker (linguistics) • Morphological parsing Lexicology • Greek morphemes • Lexeme • Morphophonology • Chereme • Grapheme • Phoneme • Sememe • Floating tone References • Spencer, Andrew (1992). Morphological Theory. Oxford: Blackwell. External links Glossary of Reading Terms • Comprehensive and searchable morpheme reference • Linguistics 001 — Lecture 7 — Morphology by Prof. Mark Lieberman • Morphemes — A New Threat to Society: A humorous look at morphemes. Accurate, but purposely confuses morphemes with narcotics (i. e. , “morphine”). • Morpheme Study Aid • Pronunciation of the word morpheme Retrieved from “http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Morpheme” Categories: Units of linguistic morphology | Greek loanwords Personal tools • Log in / create account Namespaces • Article • Discussion Variants Views • Read • View source • View history Actions Search ???? [pic] [pic][pic] ????
These skills are in the areas of phonemic awareness,| |phonics, fluency in reading text, vocabulary, and reading comprehension. The development of these skills is critical to | |getting off to a good start in reading, and we can begin to assess them as early as kindergarten. Students who lag behind in| |the development of these skills in early elementary school are in danger of not being able to read at grade level by third | |grade. |Types of Assessment | |Assessment is the process of collecting data for the purposes of specifying and verifying problems, and making instructional| |decisions about students. Assessment may be formal or informal and is conducted through a variety of methods: record | |reviews, interviews, observations, and testing. There are three types of assessments that are typically used to inform | |instruction: screening, progress monitoring, and diagnostic measures. |Layers of Instruction | |Assessment is the process of collecting data for the purposes of specifying and verifying problems, and making instructional| |decisions about students. Assessment may be formal or informal and is conducted through a variety of methods: record | |reviews, interviews, observations, and testing. There are three types of assessments that are typically used to inform | |instruction: screening, progress monitoring, and diagnostic measures. | Elements of Effective Instruction [pic]
High quality reading instruction incorporates the five components of reading delivered through a coherent instructional design. Research has repeatedly demonstrated the importance of initial instruction that includes the five critical components of reading: Phonological Awareness, Phonics, Fluency, Vocabulary, and Comprehension. To be most effective, the five critical components need to be taught explicitly within classrooms that are strongly positive and engaging, use writing activities to support literacy, and provide students with many opportunities to read interesting text and complete authentic reading and writing assignments.
Teachers typically follow a core reading curriculum to guide instruction in whole and small group settings. Small group instruction should be individualized to reflect the instructional needs of the students. Individual student needs are determined by formal screening and progress monitoring assessments, classroom assessments, and teacher observations. The goal is to use information from multiple sources to group students in a way that makes instruction in critical reading skills most efficient. For more information on the content and sequence for delivery of these please see Components of Reading.
How to Differentiate Instruction [pic] What is Differentiated Instruction? Differentiated Instruction is matching instruction to meet the needs of individual learners. The teacher forms small, flexible teacher–led instructional groups based on student data and observations. The teacher groups students with similar instructional needs, limiting the size of the group based on the intensity of instruction needed. The focus and format of reading skills instruction varies with the skill level of the students. How often and how long the teacher meets with each small group varies depending on student needs.
Students who are more at risk will need to meet more frequently and for longer periods. This small group targeted skill instruction supplements and reinforces high quality and consistent initial reading instruction. When is Differentiated Instruction Implemented? Differentiated Instruction is implemented during the 90+ minute reading block. Whole group instruction is provided using the core reading curriculum as a guide, and is usually followed by small group reading centers to develop reading skills both cooperatively and independently.
During the reading center time, the classroom teacher meets with small groups to provide systematic and explicit instruction in identified reading skill areas. How is Differentiated Instruction Implemented in the Classroom? Differentiated Instruction is implemented in the teacher-led group. The teacher forms small, flexible groups based on student data and observations. Students and classes vary from one another in many important ways. For that reason, there is no one correct way to place students into small groups for instruction.
The suggested number of students per group is 1-4 for struggling readers (intensive and strategic) and 5-8 for those students on grade level for reading. The smaller group size is needed for struggling readers because it allows the teacher more opportunity to individualize reading instruction. The classroom is then organized based on how frequently the teacher needs to meet with each group per week (e. g. , group meets daily, group meets 3 times per week) and the number of minutes per day (e. g. , 10 minutes, 20 minutes, 30 minutes).