Technical Report on Food Dyes

TECHNICAL REPORT ON SYNTHETIC FOOD COLORS TEXTILE LABORATORY APPLIED CHEMISTRY RESEARCH CENTER Pakistan Council of Scientific and Industrial Research Laboratories. Complex Karachi. TECHNICAL REPORT ON SYNTHETIC FOOD COLORS ______________________ _________________ Muhammad Aleem Ahmed Dr. Arfa Yasmeen P. S. O/ACRC HOC/ACRC _______________ __________________ Dr. Khuala Shirin Dr. Tanzil Haider Usmani P. S.

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O/ACRC D. G/KLC Compiled by: ________________ ___________ Mrs. Munazza Sohail Mansoor Iqbal Scientific Officer Scientific Officer Corresponding e-mail: [email protected] com [email protected] com [email protected] com TEXTILE LABORATORY APPLIED CHEMISTRY RESEARCH CENTER Pakistan Council of Scientific and Industrial Research Laboratories. Complex Karachi. Table of Contents: S. NoContentsPage Nos 1. Title of Project1 2. Affiliated personnel and organization2 3.

Table of Contents3 4. Introduction and uses of Food Colors4 5. List of Approved food colors with details5 6. Background and Classification8 7. Advantages and Adverse Effects due to heavy metals in Food colors9 8. Permissible Limits of Heavy Metals10 9. Schematic Diagram for the synthesis of Food colors11 10. Some details for Mono Azo Food Colorants12 11. Details and specification of Acid Red 33 Food Dye12 produced by PCSIR laboratories Complex Karachi. 13 12. Working Group for Pilot Scale production, Analysis and quality Control of Synthesized Product14 13. References15 Introduction:

Food colors are known as certified colors. A colorant which may either be obtained from natural or synthetic route, permissible for use in food, drugs or cosmetics by FDA. All must satisfy strict regulations as to toxicity. The Natural color extracts, which were used for centuries for coloring food, have been extensively replaced by synthetic dyes. These synthetic dyes are colored organic substances that can be applied in solution or dispersion to the food as substrate, thus giving it a colored appearance. Usually the dyes have an affinity for food stuff and are readily absorbed from solution.

The synthetic organic colors are superior to the natural dye extract in tinctorial power, consistency of strength, range and brilliance of shade, stability, ease of application and cost effectiveness. Many of synthetic coloring material thus selected for use in foods however the manner in which it is applied is much important from health point of view. A color additive is any dye, pigment or substance which when added or applied to a food, drug or cosmetic, or to the human body, is capable (alone or through reactions with other substances) of imparting color.

FDA is responsible for regulating all color additives to ensure that foods containing color additives are safe to eat contain only approved ingredients and are accurately labeled. Uses of Food Colors: Color additives are used in foods for many reasons: 1) To offset color loss due to exposure to light, air, temperature extremes, moisture and storage conditions; 2) To correct natural variations in color; 3) To enhance colors that occur naturally; and 4) To provide color to colorless and “fun” foods. Without color additives, colas wouldn’t be brown, margarine wouldn’t be yellow and mint ice cream wouldn’t be green.

Color additives are now recognized as an important part of practically all processed foods we eat. List of dyes which are called certified Food Dyes: •FD& C Blue No. 1 – Brilliant Blue FCF, E133 (blue shade) •FD Blue No. 2 – Indigo tine, E132 (indigo shade) •FD Green No. 3 – Fast Green FCF, E143 (turquoise shade) •FD Red No. 40 – Allura Red AC, E129 (red shade) •FD Red No. 3 – Erythrosine, E127 (pink shade, commonly used in glace cherries) •FD Yellow No. 5 – Tartrazine, E102 (yellow shade) •FD Yellow No. – Sunset Yellow FCF, E110(orange shade) List of Approved Natural and Synthetic colors for Food items by their E-Numbers: 100–199 Colors 100–109Yellows 110–119Orange 120–129Reds 130–139Blues & Violets 140–149Greens 150–159Browns & Blacks 160–199Gold and others Some Mono Azo dyes used in Food with their EN Numbers and Structures: : E102 : Tartrazine E107 : Yellow 2G E110 : Sunset Yellow E122 : Azorubine E123 : Amaranth E124 : Ponceau 4R E129 : Allura Red E151 : Brilliant Black E155 : Brown HT Background Information for Synthetic Food Colors:

Artificial food colorings were first introduced after World War II when the chemical industry met with the food industry regarding using chemical-based colors since they were lower in cost than natural colors and had a longer shelf life. The safety of the colors was determined primarily from using LD-50 tests, and the amount was then extrapolated to humans. At the time of approval, behavioral toxicology testing was not required by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and therefore was not done on the artificial food colors. Classification of Synthetic Food Colors: Synthetic Food colors have been grouped into following classes. Mono azo •Diazo •Triazo •Triarylmethane •Xanthene •Quinoline •Indigoid Azo Food colors: In azo group of colors the chromopheric system consists of essentially of the azo group on association with one or more aromatic system. Azo Group There may be one or more than one azo group are present in color molecule therefore the mono azo, diazo, triazo, tetra azo or poly azo dyes are being synthesized. Also the position of azo groups may differentiate their characteristics. The range of the shades covered by the azo group in food colors is very wide and including Red, Orange, Yellow, blue, Violet, Brown and Black.

In most of the countries of world the coloration of food is regulated by FDA and government status. This is usually achieved by the publication of permitted lists and purity specification for each colorant and sometimes by the limitation of permitted colorant level in certain food colors. Advantages of synthetic Food colors: 1. Safe 2. Uniform Quality 3. Readily available in adequate quantity 4. Good Stability 5. High tinctorial power makes them economically advantages 6. good stability in water and alcohol 7. tasteless and odor less 8. Available in several forms 9. Freedom from bacteriological problem 10.

Compatible in all food and beverages 11. Help to hold down the cost of food since the normal appearance of wholesome colorful tool can be retained or can be restored if color is lost during processing. 12. promote good health by making nutritious food attractive to the consumer. The Adverse effects of Lead, Mercury, and Arsenic: Lead: Lead is associated with lower IQ and it could also responsible for some cavities in teeth. Lead exposure has been linked to developmental delays, peripheral neuropathy, alters thyroid hormones and reduces fertility. In elderly adults level over 4 mcg can have neuro behavioral effects.

Mercury: Mercury has been implicated in autism, ADHD, learning disabilities, endocrine problems, allergies, asthma, rheumatoid arthritis, and a host of other disorders. According to the FDA, “The toxicity of mercury compounds is extensively documented in scientific literature. It is well-known that mercury compounds are readily absorbed through unbroken skin as well as through the lungs by inhalation and by intestinal absorption after ingestion. Mercury is absorbed from topical application and is accumulated in the body, giving rise to numerous adverse effects. Arsenic:

Arsenic poisoning has been associated with respiratory, neurological, developmental, and cardiovascular issues. It has also been associated with cancer. In fact, an increased risk of skin cancer in humans is associated with chronic exposure to inorganic arsenic in medication, contaminated water, and the workplace. Permissible Limits for Some Heavy metal content in Food Colors: In the US, FDA specification for food, drug and cosmetics colorants are supported by published methods, many of which are acknowledge as official methods and reported as such by the association of official analytical chemist.

FDA color additive specifications tend to differ from their European counterparts by placing lower limit on a smaller number of heavy metals usually including (Lead, Mercury and Arsenic) and by limiting a smaller number of organic contaminants . Moisture and diluents limit are usually included and minimum pure color content is required. So the General limits of heavy metals in ppm regulated by FDA on which bases a dye can be accepted as certified food color are as follows: S . NoName of MetalLimit in ppm 1. Lead? 10 2. Arsenic? 3 3. Mercury? 1 4. Cadmium? 1 5. Chromium? 50 6.

Manganese? 100 7. Total heavy Metals? 40 Some Mono Azo Food Colors with their Numbers and Intermediates: S. NoColor NameC. I NoC. I Food NoEEC NoFD & C NoIntermediates 1- Amaranth 16185 Red 9 E123 Red No 2 Naphthionic Acid, 2- Naphthol-6- Sulphonic acid, 2- Naphthol-3,6- diSulphonic acid, 2- Naphthol-6,8- diSulphonic acid, 2- Naphthol-3,6,8- diSulphonic acid 2-Allura Red16035Red 17E129Red No 405-Amino-4-Methyoxytoulene-2-Sulphonic acid, 2- Naphthol-6-Sulphonic acid, 6,6-Oxybis (naphthalene-2-sulphonic acid), 2,2- Di methoxy-5,5-dimethyl-diazo amino-benzene-4,4- di sulphonic acid. -Sun Set Yellow FCF15985Yellow 3E110Yellow No 6Sulphanilic acid,2-Naphthol-6-Sulphonic acid, 6,6-oxybis(Naphthalene-2-sulphonic acid),4,4-Diazoaminodi(benzene Sulphonic acid), 2-Naphthol-3,6-disulphonic acid. 4-Tartrazine19140Yellow 4E102Yellow No 5Sulphanilic acid,4 Hydrazino benzene sulphonic acid,3 Carboxy-1-(4-Sulphophenyl)-5-pyrazone,4,4-Diazoaminodi (Benzene Sulphonic acid) Details and Specification of Acid Red 33 Food Dye12 produced by PCSIR laboratories Complex Karachi, C. I No. 17200 •CAS Number:3567-66-6 •Name:2,7-Naphthalenedisulfonicacid, 5-amino-4-hydroxy-3-(2-phenyldiazenyl)-, sodium salt (1:2) •Synonyms: ,7-Naphthalenedisulfonicacid, 5-amino-4-hydroxy-3-(phenylazo)-, disodium salt (9CI); C. I. Acid Red 33(6CI,7CI); C. I. Acid Red 33, disodium salt (8CI); 11427 Red; 1424 Red; Acetyl Red B; Acid Fuchsin Fast B; Acid Fuchsine 38013; Acid Fuchsine 90120; Acid Fuchsine D; Acid Red 2A; Acid Red 33; Acid Red B; Amacid Fuchsine 4B; AzoFuchsine; Azo Grenadine; Azo Magenta G; Azo fuchsin; Azofuchsin (biologicalstain); Brasilan Fuchsine D; C. I. 17200; C. I. Food Red 12; Certicol Red B;Colacid Red 2A; Cosmetic Red 17000; D & C Red 33; D and C Red No. 33;D&C Red No. 33; D&C Red No. 33-307002; D&C Red No. 33-38013;D&C Red No. 3-90120; Disodium1-hydroxy-2-phenylazo-8-aminonaphthalene-3,6-disulfonate; Edicol Supra Red 10B;Edicol Supra Red 10BS; Eniacid Fuchsine BN; Fabracid Fuchsine S-B; Fast AcidMagenta; Fast Acid Magenta B; Food Red 12; Hexacol Red 10B; Hexalan Red B;Hispacid Fuchsin B; Japan Red 227; Japan Red No. 227; Naphthalene Red B;Puricolor Red ARE 33; Red 10B; Red 10B307042; Red 33; Red No. 227; Romexal Red2A •Molecular Formula: C16H13 N3 O7 S2 . 2 Na •Molecular Weight:469. 42 •Density:g/cm3 •Melting Point: decomposes below the melting point •Boiling Point:°Cat760mmHg •Flash Point: °C Lab Report of Our Synthesized product (Food Red 12 or Acid Red 33):

S. NoName of Metal Limits in ppm 1. LeadBelow detection limit 2. Arsenic Below detection limit 3. Mercury 0. 011ppm 4. CadmiumBelow detection limit 5. BariumBelow detection limit 6. CopperBelow detection limit 7. BariumBelow detection limit 8. SeleniumBelow detection limit 9. CopperBelow detection limit 10. ChromiumBelow detection limit Working Group for Pilot Scale Production, Analysis and Quality Control of Synthesized Food Color: 1. Members for Production: •Muhammad Aleem Ahmed (P. S. O)/ACRC •Munazza Sohail (S. O) /ACRC •Mansoor Iqbal (S. O) /ACRC •Kamran Ahmed (S.

O) /ACRC 2-Members for Analytical and QC Services: •Dr. Khaula Shirin P. S. O/ACRC •Dr. Sofia. K. Alvi S. S. O/ACRC •Sheeraz Shafiq S. O/ACRC •Mehroz Khan S. O/ACRC References: 1. Color Index, International, Society of dyes and Colorist Bradford England (Page 4105). 2. Development in Food Color by , Eb John Walford ,Elsevier applied Science Publishers London and New York . 3. Color in Food, Improving quality by Douglas b Dougall, CRC Press Boca Raton Boston New York Washington DC, Cambridge England. 4. Food Colorant, chemical and functional Properties by Carmen Socaciu, CRC press, Tailor and Francis Group.

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