Sci/362 Week 1

University of Phoenix Material Terms and Definitions Worksheet Write brief descriptions for each of the following terms. If you use an outside source to define them, include an APA citation for the source. Scientific methoda method of research in which a problem is identified, relevant dataare gathered, a hypothesis is formulated from these data, and the hypothesis is empirically tested. Environmental scienceThe interdisciplinary study of how humanity interacts with other organisms and the nonliving physical environment.

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AnthropocentrismIs the Focusing primarily or exclusively on human needs and interests BiocentrismIs the Focusing on all life-forms as equally important Dualism a theory that considers reality to consist of two irreducible elements or modes EcocentrismA term in ecological political philosophy used to denote a nature-centred, as opposed to human-centred, system of values. EcologyThe study of systems that includes interrelationships among organisms and between organisms and their environment. Ecophilosophy The study of the interrelationship between an organism’s physical functioning and its environment.

EthicsThe branch of philosophy that deals with human values Hedonismthe doctrine that pleasure or happiness is the sole or chief good in life HolismThe theory that parts of a whole are in intimate interconnection, such that they cannot exist or be understood independently of the whole IndividualismA doctrine holding that the interests of the individual should take precedence over the interests of the state or social group Materialism a doctrine that the only or the highest values or objectives lie in material well-being and in the furtherance of material progress

Metaphysical of or relating to the transcendent or to a reality beyond what is perceptible to the senses Minimalism a style or technique (as in music, literature, or design) that is characterized by extreme spareness and simplicity Monismthe view that reality is one unitary organic whole with no independent parts Ethical extensionisma conventional ethic and argues that it should be applied to a group that has traditionally been excluded from moral consideration, eg animals. Examples: Regan, Singer. Critics argue for a more radical approach

PluralismThe belief that there are multiple perspectives on an issue, each of which contains part of the truth but none of which contain the whole truth. In ethics, moral pluralism is the belief that different moral theories each capture part of truth of the moral life, but none of those theories has the entire answer NaturalismIn ethics, naturalism is the theory that moral values can be derived from facts about the world and human nature. Normative You are making a normative judgment if you say that a particular rule, standard or “norm” should be generally adopted.

Pragmatic relating to matters of fact or practical affairs often to the exclusion of intellectual or artistic matters RelativismIn ethics, there are two main type of relativism. Descriptive ethical relativism simply claims as a matter of fact that different people have different moral beliefs, but it takes no stand on whether those beliefs are valid or not. Normative ethical relativism claims that each culture’s (or group’s) beliefs are right within that culture, and that it is impossible to validly judge another culture’s values from the outside.

UtilitarianA moral theory that says that what is moral right is whatever produces the greatest overall amount of pleasure and happiness Environmental justiceThe right of every citizen, regardless of age, race, gender, social class, or other factor, to adequate protection from environmental hazards. Fossil fuelsa fuel (as coal, oil, or natural gas) formed in the earth from plant or animal remains Renewable energyany naturally occurring, theoretically inexhaustible source of energy, as biomass, solar, wind, tidal, wave, and hydroelectric power, that is not derived from fossil or nuclear fuel

Environmental Schools of Thought Write 350- to 700-words below in which you select two of the following environmental schools of thought found among the terms in the worksheet. The environmental schools of thought are: oAnthropocentric oBiocentric oDeep ecology/ecocentric Explain how your chosen two schools of thought view a local environmental issue differently. Be sure to address any ethical concerns or controversies surrounding this environmental issue. Your Response: Some would say that the Pacific Northwest has more environmental concerns than any other part of the world.

From Logging to wildlife conservation, there are many things that need to be done to make sure that the Northwest is a special place to live for everyone and everything. In this discussion the topic of the conservation of wild salmon will be discussed. Included in the discussion will be how an anthropocentric and an ecocentric person would view the concern differently. Within the last 10 years the Wild Salmon population has been decreasing in the pacific. There are many things that could be causing the population to diminish.

The building of Hydro electric dams to the over fishing of the species that has been happening for years. Recently there has been an increase in activism to stop fishing for the wild salmon and even shutting down hydroelectric power stations to conserve this species of fish. According to the Encyclopedia of Science and Religion, “Anthropocentric is a term used to describe certain philosophical perspectives that claim that ethical principles apply to humans only, and that human needs and interests are of the highest value and importance. Taking this approach to the environmental issue at hand a anthropocentric person shows little or no importance for the need of the species of fish. A person with this approach feels that the needs of human beings are more important than those of a fish. As long as the fish continue to exist, humans should be able to put dams up and create what they need to survive and be happy. The ecocentric approach is almost the opposite of the anthropocentric approach. An ecocentric person feels that all things in nature including fish have the same rights and needs.

They feel that it is important to make sure that this species of wild fish be conserved and all activities that threaten its habitat and potential extinction be reviewed and potentially stopped. The ecocentric person feels that the hydroelectric dams are a detriment to the environment even though it is a renewable energy source because of the risk of destruction of the natural habitat. An ecocentric person feels that the rules of nature outweigh the needs and rules of the human realm. REFERENCES Dictionary. com . (2011). Scientific Method. Retrieved from http://dictionary. reference. om/browse/renewable+energy Dictionary. com . (2011). Scientific Method. Retrieved from http://dictionary. reference. com/browse/scientific+method Merriam-Webster. (2011). Dictionary. Retrieved from http://www. merriam-webster. com/dictionary The Free dictionary. com. (2011). Individualism. Retrieved from http://www. thefreedictionary. com/ecophysiology The Free dictionary. com. (2011). Individualism. Retrieved from http://www. thefreedictionary. com/individualism University of Missouri. (2011). Glossary of Terms for Environment Ethics. Retrieved from http://cstl- cla. semo. edu/hill/ui429/eeglossary. htm

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