Project on Jct

JCT LIMITED PHAGWARA EMBED PBrush ACKNOWLEDGEMENT ACKNOWLEDGMENT I acknowledge my indebtness to my revered seniors and Staffs of Marketing Department whose invaluable guidance and ingenuity gave my mere ideas a concrete shape. I really owe a debt of gratitude to Mr. Umesh Mathur and their staffs for delight help, experience and cooperation. I extend my profound gratitude to Mr. Akhil Bajaj, Training and Placement officer GNA-IMT who guided me in arranging this training.

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I am also thankful to all the learned and experienced professors of Management department who spared their time for guiding me during my training tenure. Though unnamed, the staff of various departments has been unstinting in their dispensable services. It is difficult to mention anyone but I am thankful to all the employees of JCT for helping me during my training period and for giving me their precious time. All may not be mentioned but no one is forgotten. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

The project title “Consumer Buying Behaviour Regarding Branded Fabrics (With special reference to JCT Wardrobe)” is detailed study undertaken to have basic understanding of each and every department in the organization so that it will help me to work effectively and efficiently while performing various functions in the Marketing department. The basic aim to analyse the market condition of JCT Wardrobe, watch its performance and maintains the customer satisfaction.

After full processing and analysis of the information/data collected from different customers and retailers, I made certain observations and in light of it could manage to give some suggestions for various improvement of JCT Wardrobe. I am highly indebted to Dr. D. R. Singh (Director General GNA –IMT), and Mr. Umesh Mathur(Sr. Manager Marketing JCT Ltd. ) who helped me alot in research analysis. I also convey my sincere thanks to all those personalities who gave me necessary information thereby provided boost to my studies. TABLE OF CONTENTS SR.

NO PARTICULARS PAGE NO CHAPTER-1: INTRODUCTION 1. 1 1. 2 1. 3 1. 4 1. 5 1. 6 1. 7PROFILE OF THE COMPANY COMPANY HISTORY ORGANIZATION TREE/ STRUCTURE PRODUCT RANGE OF THE COMPANY FINANCIAL STATUS OF THE COMPANY HR POLICIES OF THE COMPANY FUTURE PROSPECTUS CHAPTER-2: INTRODUCTION TO THE PROJECT 2. 1 2. 2REASONS FOR CHOICE OF PROJECT SCOPE OF THE PROJECT CHAPTER-3:METHODOLOGY3. 1 3. 3. 3 3. 4 OBJECTIVE OF THE PROJECT PRIMARY & SECONDARY DATA TO BE COLLECTED SAMPLE DESIGN, SIZE,& METHODS TO BE USED LIMITATION OF THE PROJECT CHAPTER-4:ANALYSIS & FINDINGS4. 1 4. 2PROJECT ANALYSIS WITH THE HELP OF DATA COLLECTED PROJECT FINDINGS CHAPTER-5:SUGGESTIONS, CONCLUSION. BIBLIOGRAPHY APPENDIX “Where growth is not only an obsession” A visionary who wanted to lay the foundation of an enterprise that would help India through her formative years, founded the Thapar Group in the early 1920’s.

As pioneers they are the fourth largest industrial conglomerate in the country, with over 54 different companies and 80 manufacturing plants. Assets have accumulated over Rs. 24,000 million with an annual turnover of about $ 2 billion. The group grows annually at the rate of over 19%. The group has diversified industrial interests that include Paper, Chemicals, Textiles, and Man made Fibers, Glass, Electronics, Heavy Engineering, Diesel Engines, Power Equipment, Motor and Pump sets, Gensets, Transmission and Distribution Equipments etc.

Beyond this, the Thapar Group manufactures equipment for industries related to Aviation, Mining, Marine, Metallurgy, Oil exploration, Shipping, and Mechanical handling. Industrial products like Electronic Process Instrumentation Boilers and Furnaces, Steam and Energy Control Equipment are also the part of Thapar Group’s activities. Software growth is another area that Thapar Group has explored. Flagship that represents the Thapar Group: Ballarpur Industries Ltd. JCT Ltd. Compton Greaves Ltd. Greaves Cotton and Company Ltd.

The companies have gone beyond their initial industrial interest and pioneered a wide range of products and services through their subsidiaries. The Thapar Group’s spectacular growth in a span of over 80 years is a result of two factors: A clear philosophy that governs the mission of business across all levels of hierarchy and the openness of mind to share global technologies with those who are willing and brave. The Thapar Group’s manufacturing values ensure associations only with the world’s best and most capable corporations.

The collaboration list constitutes giants like Du-Pont, Zimmer, AG Hitachi Ltd. , OKI Electrical, Westinghouse, David Brown Ruston & Hornsby Hawker Siddsley, Siemens AG and Bush Electronics. The group owes its success to a well known attitude of doing business globally and nationally, an attitude that involves lighting changes, both in terms of technology, infrastructure, and ability to adopt the changing scenario at home and abroad, and a warm management philosophy that always puts people first. _____________________________________JCT Ltd. Phagwara _________

PROFILE OF THE COMPANY In the field of cotton and blended fabrics, JCT has always been a trendsetter. It is one of the leading manufacturers and exporters of cotton textiles in the country. JCT limited Phagwara; a composite unit having spinning, weaving, and processing facilities is a blue chip company of the Thapar Group and was incorporated on 28th October, 1946 under the name of M/S Jagatjit Cotton textiles Mills. The establishment of JCT limited was the result of the decision taken by the government of India under the post war development plan.

It was decided to locate the mill in the north India and after much discussion; Kapurthala was selected as a site for textile venture. It was M/S Karamchand Bros. Ltd. Who entered into a final contract with the government of India to set a mill at Phagwara (Punjab)? The disadvantage of unfavorable weather was offset by other factors such as cheap lab our, availability of raw material, and government’s aid. Thus, the company came into existence in 1946. In the initial years, the business was on a small scale and the company was manufacturing only cotton fabrics.

That is why it is called “Jagatjit Cotton Textiles Ltd. ” Afterwards the company also started manufacturing cotton yarn, and nylon T filament yarn. JCT has made a big dent in synthetic markets by producing plain and fancy suiting; both piece dyed and fiber dyed and dyed yarn shirting in innumerable designs and weaves to cater the different segments of the market. The policy of management to reinvest its profits year after year led the mill to grow rapidly into one of the leading textiles mill in the country. In 1995, Rs. 300 crores was invested for the modernization of the Phagwara unit.

This unit is now one of the most modern units with the state of art technology. The management for over three decades has implemented the concept of participative management. The workers/ employees and their representatives are fully involved in the management and running the affairs of the company. This policy of management has generated tremendous goodwill for the company amongst its employees and the result is that the company has a committed workforce of about 5000 workers and 530 employees and the most cordial employee- employer relationship.

As this is the era of cutthroat competition, JCT believes in quality, which results in leadership, and as result, this has led them to tremendous growth. JCT fabrics have captured profitable sections in the market. There has been a constant growth in the man-made fibre with a wide variety of nylon and polyester filament yarn. LOCATION OF JCT The mill is situated in Phagwara town on G. T. Road, the national highway number -1. It is 40 kilometers from Ludhiana towards Amritsar. The location of the mill is of great advantage as transportation of goods is cheaper, easier and quick. JCT PHAGWARA COMPLEX

The complex consists of a mill and the Thapar colony. In the mill, there is a main production unit, administration offices, go downs, stores, canteen, dispensary, and the turbines for the generation of electricity. The residential complex known as Thapar colony is for the officers and other employees. It includes gymnasium, club, and a lake for boating. The whole complex, thus, is like a small town in itself. BRIEF ABOUT THE THAPAR GROUP “So long as we have confidence in the value Of the goal and excitement at the prospects of setting Forth into unfamiliar territory and the will

To do new things, I have no doubt that the future of India and the future Indian enterprise are safe and glorious” Lala Karam Chand Thapar (1900-1962) Founder of the Thapar Group “His Vision of enterprise in 1920s was certainly not a dream”. ________________________________________JCT Ltd. Phagwara _________ FABRIC RANGES: FABRIC STYLES : BULL DENIMS, TWILLS, CHINO, CORDS, CANVAS, DUCKS, FLANNEL, TUSSORES, YARN DYED SHIRTING, PRINTS UPTO 8 COLOURS. FINISHES : MICRO-SANDING, PEACHING, SOFT-FINISH, STIFF FINISH, EASY CARE, WATER REPELLENT, RAIN AND STAIN PROOF.

BLENDS: 100% COTTON, POLYSTER: COTTON BLENDED FABRICS- 65:35, 35:65, POLYSTER VISCOSE WITH BLEND 48:52. FABRIC CONFIGURATION:IN VARIOUS COUNTS IN OPEN END, CARDED, COMBED RING SPUN YARNS IN SINGLE AS WELL AS PILED. HR POLICIES OF THE COMPANY JCT believes in dignity of human beings. JCT believes that there exists a psychological contract between the organization and the employees, and the growth of both is interlinked. JCT strive to attract, develop, and retain the best talent available. JCT doesn’t believe in any discrimination on the basis of caste, creed, religion, race, or gender.

JCT believes in the concept of right person at the right job. JCT values merit and recognizes ability. JCT encourages teamwork and believes that this enhances problem-solving capabilities. JCT actively promotes sports and other cultural activities for cohesiveness and harmony. JCT knows that it is the part of the changing environment and that it has to be proactive to such changes. JCT continuously strives to be a better corporate citizen. FUTURE PROSPECTS The JCT Ltd. Which was dealing in fabrics from 1946 is now overcoming with a new business of readymade garments in Readymade Garment Sector with a brand named “ TAYROCK”.

The company will introduce the Tayrock on a large scales with hundred showrooms on franchise system in all over India. The target of the company to achieve sales turnover will be from Rs. 800 crores to 1000 crores till 2012. Along with this the company is also introducing a new plant of fabrics named “ TAFFETA” having 100% nylon + polyester. _____ QUALITY POLICY OF JCT Customer’s satisfaction is the motto of JCT Ltd. They, therefore commit themselves to produce and deliver such fabrics so as to meet the customer’s demands. Up gradation of Identification of Quality customer’s needs

ContinuousConfirm the desired Improvement standards Customer Satisfaction This is achieved by: Identifying customer’s requirements and converting them into products. Pursuing the process of continuous improvement by the employees of the organization. Ensuring that quality standards are maintained and upgraded to reflect the changing customer’s requirements INTRODUCTION TO THE PROJECT REASONS FOR CHOICE OF PROJECT To conduct my project consumer buying behavior regarding branded fabric with special reference to Jct wardrobe due to falling reason.

I am very keen to build my career in marketing stream with textile industry. Very few research has been done on Consumer Buying Behaviour Regarding Branded Fabric with speciacaL Reference to Jct Wardrobe. Personally I feel that there are some looples in previous research for example according to the previous research Jct Wardrobe is very good brand many customers are aware regarding Jct fabric after the research I concluded that Jct fabric is not popular brand even some of the phagwara consumer are not aware regarding this fabric brand. SCOPEOFTHEPROJECT ISO-9002 IN JCT

ISO-9002 (International organization for standardization) is an International organization consisting of representative of 91 countries. A standard body represents each country. ISO is a system standard and its role is to integrate various Standard of production, services and systems. Operating in member countries and bring out harmonized international standards in these areas which will be acceptable worldwide. The basic objective of ISO is to promote the development of standard testing and certification in order to encourage the trade of goods and services.

Out of 140 companies, JCT is one of the five composite mills, which has successful ISO -9002certificate. In today’s competitive globalize economy, every company has to face a stiff competition from its competitors and in order to survive, companies are in search for new channels and are stressing on exports. JCT as a late entrant in suiting and shirting markets is currently looking forward to increase its potential to new or existing international markets, to expand its export sales so that it survive in today’s competition.

In the process of increasing export sales, JCT has recently acquired ISO-9002 certificate to meet international standards. METHODOLOGY OBJECTIVE OF THE PROJECT To analyze the consumer buying behaviour regarding branded fabric. To examine the marketing strategies with influence the consumer buying behavior. To examine the market position of JCT Wardrobe among their competitors. To study the various factors which influencing buying behavior. To assess the brand loyalty among customers towards the branded fabric they purchase. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY Research means a search for knowledge or gain some new knowledge and methodology can properly refer to the theoretical analysis of the methods appropriate to a field of study or to the body of methods and principles particular to a branch of knowledge. A Research methodology has a specified framework for collecting the data in effective manner. Research methodology means a “defining a problem, defining the research objectives, developing the research plan, collecting the information, analyzing the information and presentation of findings. Such framework is called “Research Design. ” The research process that was followed by me consisting following steps. A)Research Define. The definition of problem includes the study of “Consumer Buying Behaviour Regarding Branded Fabric. B)Research Design. A research design is the arrangement of conditions for the collection and analysis of data in a manner that aims to combine relevance to research purpose with economy in procedure. My research is descriptive in nature. So after careful relocation in the present study interviewed the residents of Phagwara and Jalandhar region.

The step of the study consists of developing the most efficient plan for gathering the relevant data. The following factors were under focus in research plan. a)Data Design: It involves different aspects like the nature of data, the data sources, the data frequency and data tools. b) Nature of Data; The nature of data that has been used under project is both primary and secondary in nature. The term data can be defined as facts, figures and information systematically collected and presented for the purpose of drawing inferences.

The first hand information bearing on any research. Which has been collected is called “Primary data. ” The result based on primary data are bound to be empirical and of great utility. Once the primary Data has been put to use, the original characters disappear and the data becomes secondary. The Becomes Secondary. The data which has already been collected, complied and presented earlier By any agency , may be used for the purpose of investigation. ) Type of research: Survey is best suited for descriptive and analytical research. Survey are undertaken to learn about peoples knowledge, beliefs, preferences, satisfaction and so on and to measure these magnitudes in the general public. In the present study have done this survey for Descriptive and analytical research process. Descriptive research includes surveys and facts finding enquiries of different kinds. The main purpose is description of the state of affairs is noted drawn and analytical research used to analyze the material and facts. )Sampling Design: It is a definite plan for obtaining a sample from a given population. It refers to the technique or the procedure the researcher would adopt in selecting items for the sample. The sampling plan or design calls for the following decisions. d) Universe: Research sample unit refers to the geographical area that in the present study have covered while concluding the research. The universe of my study is Phagwara and Jalandhar. e) Sample Unit: Who is to be surveyed? The target population must be defined that will be sampled.

It is necessary to develop a sampling Frame so that everyone in the target population has an equal chance of being sampled. Sample unit Pertaining to my study are residents of Phagwara and Jalandhar. f) Sample size: How many people will be surveyed? This refers to number of respondents to be selected from the universe to constitute a sample. An optimum sample is one that fulfills the requirements of efficiency, reliability and flexibility. The sample size of 50 served the purpose of my study. )Sample Method: The sampling method used non-probability convenience sampling ( where the researcher selects the most accessible population members from which to obtain information) D) Methods of Data Collection and analysis: The researcher can get two types of data : A) Primary Data B) Secondary Data Primary Data: Primary data is data which does not exist earlier and is being collected by the researchers first time for its specific objectives. In other words , direct collection of data from the source of information, technology including personal interviews, observation, Questionnaire and through schedules.

Secondary Data: Any data which have been collected earlier for some purpose are the secondary data. Indirect collection of data from sources containing past or recent past information like company’s brochures, annual report, research papers. Books etc. Secondary sources used are : Text books Internet sites Newspaper articles Broachers Data Analysis and Interpretation: Data after collection have been processed and analyzed in accordance with the outline laid down in the research plan. Data obtained during the study have been systematically tabulated and interpreted with the help of tables or pie charts.

LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY The study may the following limitations: LIMETED SCOPE: Scope of study will be limited to Jalandhar and Phagwara region only because of limited time and money. So results of study may not be generalized. OUTPUT MAY BE INACCURATE: This study will base on the assumption that responses are true and factual although at times that may not be the case. DYNAMIC BEEHAVIOUR OF CONSUMER Consumer behaviour is dynamic in nature and thus over the time, finding of today may become invalid tomorrow. SMALL SIZE SAMPLE The research study is limited to 50 respondents of Pahgwara and Jalandhar region.

Therefore the sample size and other parameters were selected accordingly so as to finish the work within the given time frame. FINDINGS OF THE STUDY The major aim of making this project is not only to get a certificate but also to provide JCT MILL LTD. With effective suggestions so that they can improve their work as much as my small assignment can assist them in. With a total set of 50 questionnaire which I used to make this project report I worked and analysed them so that I could reach on some conclusion and could help the executives of this firm to take some decisions which could make their sales more effective.

Now , as my analysis says that majority of buyers fall in middle aged category so they like to buy best quality and attractive colour of fabric. Most of them purchase branded fabric and about the fabric brand of this company JCT Wardrobe is not popular among the customers CHAPTER 4 ANALYSIS AND FINDINGS A PROJECT REPORT ON CONSUMER BUYING BEHAVIOUR REGARDING BRANDED FABRICS. (with special reference to JCT Wardrobe). In the partial fulfillment of requirements for the second semester of the Masters Of Business Administration.

Submitted to Submitted by Ms. Monika Hanspal Rakesh kumar Lecturer MBA 3rd GNA-IMT Roll. no. :- 146 Phagwara. ? 1. Which is your favorite brand of fabric? ParticularsNo. of Respondents% of RespondentsCotton County 18 36Arvind 0 0Jct

Wardrobe 2. From where did you know about your favorite brand? Particulars No. of Respondents % Of Respondents Friend Circle 23 46 Television 17 34 Internet 1 2 Hoarding 0 0 Other 9 18Total50 100%.. . Which of the following influence your choice of particular brand? ParticularsNo. of respondents% of Respondents Price 3 6 Quality 43 86 Color 1 2 Texture 2 4 Any other 1 2 Total 50 100% 4. Which brand s advertisement influence you most?

ParticularsNo. of Respondents% of RespondentsCotton County816Arvind00Jct Wardrobe00Siyaram2550Ashima icon12Any Other1632Total50100% 5. Which type of shades do you prefer? ParticularsNo. of Respondents% of Respondents Light 17 34 Dark 7 14 Both 24 48 Any Other 2 4 Total 50 100% 7.

Rating of different sales promotion schemes…… 6. From where do you buy this particular brand ? Particulars No of Respondents % of Respondents From Cloth Shop 40 80 Shopping Mall 42 84 Factory Outlet 14 28 Any other 2 4 Total 50 100 . How frequently do you go for purchase of fabric? Particulars No of Respondents % of Respondents Once a week 0 0 Once a Fortnight 1 2 Once a Month 14 28 Once a six Month 8 16 No fixed time 27 54 Total 50 100 9.

Do you want to shift for other brand in future? Particulars No. of Respondents % of Respondents Definitely Yes 10 20 Yes 12 24 Sometimes 25 50 No 1 2 Definitely No 2 4 Total 50 100 0. Statement:You satisfied with your favorite brand . Particulars No. of respondents% of Respondents Strongly Agree 15 30 Agree 3060 Neutral 510 Disagree 00 Strongly Disagree 00 Total 50100 11. Statement: You advice about your favorite brand. Particulars No. f Respondents % of Respondents Definitely Yes 11 22 Yes 22 44 Sometimes 13 26 No 3 6 Definitely No 1 2 12. Have you ever purchase JCT Wardrobe (A fabric brand of JCT)? 13. If you never purchased JCT Wardrobe ,please specify a reason. 14. Which major improvement in JCT Wardrobe would automatically stimulate you to buy them?

Particulars No. of Respondents % of Respondents Quality 12 24 Price 6 12 Color 8 16 Availability 16 32 Any Other 8 16 Total 50 100 _________________________________________________________JCT Ltd. Phagwara ______________ J. Established in: 1946 Operation of production: 1951 In 1950’s Installed Capacity Spindle: 17856

Looms: 390 Present Installed Capacity Spindles: 63244 Open End Rotors: 1488 Looms: 450 Conventional 171 Sulzer 28 Air – Jet Annual Turnover Exceeding Rs. 300 crores Manpower: Workers: 4500(app. ) (Engagement) Staff: 550(app. ) Regd. Office: Village Chohal Distt. Hoshiarpur 46001 (Pb. ) Corporate Office: Thapar House 124, Jan path New Delhi-110001 FABRIC RANGES: FABRIC STYLES : BULL DENIMS, TWILLS, CHINO, CORDS, CANVAS, DUCKS, FLANNEL, TUSSORES, YARN DYED SHIRTING, PRINTS UPTO 8 COLOURS. FINISHES : MICRO-SANDING, PEACHING, SOFT-FINISH, STIFF FINISH, EASY CARE, WATER REPELLENT, RAIN AND STAIN PROOF.

BLENDS: 100% COTTON, POLYSTER: COTTON BLENDED FABRICS- 65:35, 35:65, POLYSTER VISCOSE WITH BLEND 48:52. FABRIC CONFIGURATION:IN VARIOUS COUNTS IN OPEN END, CARDED, COMBED RING SPUN YARNS IN SINGLE AS WELL AS PILED. ORGANISATION TREE MAJOR DEPARTMENTS OF JCT LIMITED In today’s competitive world, the process of production is very important but the stand of the company becomes strong and sound if it moves towards productivity. This increase in productivity has to be achieved without sacrificing the quality of the end product.

To meet the required objectives, the mill is divided into three main functions contributing equally to the effective and efficient working of the mill. These three major functions are subdivided into Departments and further into sections these three functions are as follows: A). Production Function B). Non Production Function C). Service Function Production Function comprises of the following Departments: 1). SPINNING Cotton Spinning Synthetic Spinning C). Spinning Auto-Coro- Open End Spinning D). Spinning Maintenance E). Post Spinning 2). WEAVING A) Weaving Preparatory Conventional B).

Weaving Conventional C). Weaving Preparatory Sulzer D) Weaving Sulzer 3). PROCESSING Synthetic Processing Cotton Processing Finishing Printing Non Production Function comprises of the following Departments: 1). Warehouse Mending Grey Folding Cotton Ware House Synthetic Warehouse Exports Warehouse 2). Marketing Domestic Marketing RMG Marketing Exports Marketing Raw Material Department Fabric Development Department Production Planning Department Research and Development ISO Department Service Function comprises of the following Department: Human Resource Department Finance and Accounts Department

Information Technology Department Administration Department Purchase Department Engineering Department Lab our & Industrial Relation Department HYPERLINK “http://www. jcttextiles. com/Tech01. htm” “_blank” HYPERLINK “http://www. jcttextiles. com/Tech02. htm” “_blank” HYPERLINK “http://www. jcttextiles. com/Tech06. htm” “_blank” HYPERLINK “http://www. jcttextiles. com/Tech07. htm” “_blank” HYPERLINK “http://www. jcttextiles. com/Tech04. htm” “_blank” PRODUCTION DEPARTMENTS A] SPINNING Spinning can be understood as the elementary step of production process.

The process of spinning can be implemented on both cotton and synthetic. This department produces yarn for consumption in the weaving department of the mill and no yarn is sold outside. Both can be segregated into two sections: Cotton section Cotton Synthetic Comprising of: Conventional spinning department Non conventional open end spinning(Rotor spinning) Before the spinning process required cotton is got from the ginning operation. JCT’s own ginning plants are located in Srinagar, Khanna, Abohar and jagraon. Mainly in the process of spinning, fiber is converted into yarn.

Before using the cotton as raw material parameters are checked first those are types of ginning length of fiber, fineness of cotton, trash content, fiber breaking strength, maturity etc. The cotton mainly comes from Punjab,Gujarat,M. P. ,Maharashtra and Rajasthan. The various steps of spinning department can be shown by the following chart. The functions of these steeps are serially carried out. Varieties of Cotton used J-34 Sh-6 LRA-5166 DHY-286 AHH-468 DCH-32 V797 NHH-44 Organic cotton Total no. of rings in spinning department-46,488 Cost of Cotton-RS 20,000-23,000 per candy (for medium and coarse counts) (One candy-355. 5kg approx)

Cost of organic cotton-Rs 36000 per candy (only for exports) Types of waste in spinning department Hard Waste (Waste after yarn stage) Soft waste (Waste before yarn) Recovery of cotton in spinning department: Waste recycled-5% Carded Cotton-85% Combed-70% 1). COTTON SPINNING The spinning Process: Mixing Once the cotton bale arrives in the mixing department they are broken down into small tufts by hand in the mixing/opening room. The impurities or the contaminates present in the cotton such as seed coats, cotton husk, woody materials, plastic paper etc are removed by hand picking. Small tuffs are further introduced into blow room.

In synthetic spinning polyester/cotton and polyester/viscose are mixed and tint is sprayed in order to distinguish between the types and is introduces into the blow room. BLOWROOM: The objectives of the blow room are as follows: To open the fiber from matted condition to open loose state To remove maximum amount of impurities and make cotton as clean as possible. TO carry out blending and mixing. To provide a convenient package form i. e. lap which can easily be transported and processed in subsequent machines. Directions in BLOW ROOM Uneven Laps Conical Laps Dirty Laps Licking Laps Defective selvedge’s CARDING:

To carry out the process of fiber opening to a state of individual fiber. To remove neps, tiny lumps of fiber and fused with fiber ends. To mix the fiber to provide a uniform distribution. To deliver a continuous silver for further processing. Defects in Carding Uneven Carding In EFFICIENT CARDING Uneven hank High % of neps DRAW FRAME: Strengthening and parallelization of fibers Reduction in the long term irregularity present in the card silver. Blending of component fibers by doubling silvers. Defects in Draw Frame Uneven doubling and drafting NON-uniform hank. COMBINING: To reduce the percentage of short fibers

TO remove the micro dust impurities To straighten and to make the fibers parallel. TO spin finer, more uniform and strong yarn. Speed Frame Attenuation of fibers To impart strength to roving by inserting soft twist. To deliver continuous package i. e. roving Defects in Speed Frame Uneven drafting NON –uniform roving hank Roller lapping Frequent breakage RING FRAME: To draw out roving being fed to ring frame to required degree of fineness To impart sufficient amount of twist to yarn according to requirement. TO wind up spurn yarn into convenient package form. DEFECTS IN RING FRAME: Uneven drafting Non-uniform yarn count

Roller lapping Frequent breakage 2). SYNTHETIC SPINNING This department also produces yarn but uses the blend of Polyester and Cotton (PC) or Polyester and Viscose (PV). The process of synthetic spinning differs as per the PC and PV blend. In this various types of bends are used. The blend in this type of department at JCT is as Follows: 65:35 polyester/ cotton (count spun 30s, 45s, 60s, and 80s) 67:33 polyester/ cotton (count spun 15s, 18s, 20s, 34s, and 40s) 48:52-polyester/ viscose (Count spun 15s, 18s, 20s, 34s, 40s) 3). POST SPINNING This section comes after the final spinning in the ring frame section.

Once the bobbins are made on the ring frames the next step is preparation of cones so that they can be further used in the preparation of beams, which are further used in weaving process. In post spinning department the bobbins are converted into cones. The main objectives of this section are: To make bigger packages of yarn so that the efficiency of the winding machine can be increased. To clear the yarn from the thin and thick places (correcting the faults). It is essential to impart proper tension to the yarn so as to reduce snarls and hence breakages in the further process. To make multifold yarn

Different machines used in the process are: Cone winding machine (PSM) Cheese winding machine (PSM) Ring doubling machine TFO (two for one twister machine) Autoconer 4). SPINNING AUTOCORO / OPEN END SPINNING The spinning autocoro section works under the open end technology. The section gives many advantages over the conventional spinning process. Machines of Latest technology are used in this department Which is imported from GERMANY. In open end spinning no lap is formed and directly from the blow room silver is formed. After that carding is done and there is no combing stage.

From the carding it directly goes to draw frame after that there is no speed frame and finally bobbins Are made on the ring frame. Open end spinning is mostly used for coarse counts. 5). SPINNING MAINTENANCE This department is responsible for the preventive maintenance of all the three spinning sections. This section deals with many cases like replacement of broken machinery parts and cleaning of the machines. This section plays a major role in the working of the spinning machinery. Spinning Defects Slubs Mending mark Contamination Knot Thick weft Uneven weft Slubby weft Four ply Fine wrap Uneven dyed Dead Cotton

Thick end Color fly PROCESS FLOW CHART CONVERSION OF FIBRE IN TO YARN (100% Cotton) PROCESS FLOW CHART CONVERSION OF FIBRE IN TO YARN (POLYESTER – COTTON YARN) B] WEAVING The inter placement of wrap and weft, to form the structure of the fabric is called as weaving. Wrap is vertically placed and weft is horizontally in the cloth for which power looms are used. Weaving involves two steps: Prepatory Stage Loom stage or Fabric forming Stage 1). WEAVING PREPRATORY The main objectives of this section are: To prepare the sheet of warp yarns (warping) as per the designs and the percentage of colors threads used.

To prepare the packages for weft yarn. To seize the yarn so that the thread can withstand strains in the weaving process (sizing). Drawing in/Tying in. Process sequence of weaving section: Warping: The main objective of warping is to take total no. of ends in a width of cloth to be woven. These are two types of warping: Beam Warping: This is used for one type of yarn with longer length and for plain designs. Sectioned Warping: This is used for all patterns in limited length and for making checks and designs. b) Sizing: It is process to combine the total ends prepared to apply sizing and finally prepares the required weaver package.

The main objectives: To provide temporary strength to yarn to bear stress and strain. To reduce hairiness of yarn so as to minimize abrasions and entangling during weaving To improve flexibility of the yarn. In seizing basically starch is provided temporary strength to the fiber quality of the yarn is measured by its breaking rate. It leads to wastage of time, reduced machine efficiency. If it is above 0. 50 the quality is not good. PV yarn is having more strength than cotton yarn. Double yarn has less breakage. c) Drawing: This is the process of preparing the looms for the process of weaving.

In this step firstly the yarn is passed through the drop pins, the main function of drop pins as this name suggest is to drop down when the yarn breaks and it stops the motion and the weaving stops there. After that it passes through herald eye and then the yarn is passed through reed. Final width of cloth depends upon reed. 2) LOOM STAGE OR FABRIC FORMING STAGE In this stage the prepared looms are installed on the weaving . In this stage the interlacement of the warp and the weft yarn takes place and the fabric is formed. Looms are of three types: WEAVING CONVENTIONAL OR SHUTTER WEAVING

This section provides gray fabric based on weaving machines used for fabric manufacturing. In these looms pirns are used as weft. The sizes of the looms are small as compared to Sulzer looms. WEAVING SULZER As the mass of the shuttle (weft carrying package in conventional weaving) is very high, so the acceleration or de acceleration of the shuttle is very less. So we can increase the production by using lightweight weft carrier. Sulzer technique is based upon this principle and is widely used in JCT.

WEAVING AIR – JET In this looms cones are used as weft. These looms are bigger in size than the conventional looms. In this case air pressure helps in traveling the weft yarn and the weaving is done. KNOTTING: Knotting is basically the process in which knots are made by joining two looms. This enables the continuity in weaving and the process of drawing is not required. This process also saves the time. Knotting is done only when count, reed and the other specifications are made. GATING: Gating is the process in which the drawing –in process is carried out again before introducing the looms into the machine.

Weaving Defects Starting mark Crack Loose wrap Loose end Patti Design Cut Sawai Lashing in Float Loose weft Oil stain Grey stain Rust stain Double pick Hello mark GTM Floating end Oily end Fold mark Chira Snarling Weft bar Wrong Drawn Missing end Double end Distortion Color wrap Reed mark Temple mark Mildew stain C] PROCESSING PROCESS HOUSE The department comes into action when fabric from the weaving section is obtained in the grey stage. Different chemical treatments are given to the fabric so as to improve its appearance and properties. This section is divided in three main units: Benninger Plant Cotton Processing

Synthetic Processing Processing is final step off converting the fabric into usable form. Following is the process sequence. Grey Stitching: Stitching of one piece with another is carried out to make the required batch. Semi Bleaching: This process is meant to remove the seizing ingredients and other added impurities. Bleaching: Fabrics contain natural coloring matters. Bleaching is a process of oxidative treatment to destroy coloring matter by treatment with Sodium hydrochloride and Hydrogen Peroxide. Mercerizing: The objective of mercerization is to improve luster, enhance durability and provide dimensional stability.

Dyeing: Coloring the fabrics as per customers demand with different types of dye stuff. Finishing: Finishing is carried out for improving the serviceability of fabrics or to impart desirable properties to the fabrics such as body softness and feel. Pre –Shrunk: To overcome the problem of cotton and its blended fabrics during subsequent process. Decatizing: To improve luster, feel and durability to P/V fabrics. Heat setting: To improving dimensional stability and resistance to pilling and creases to synthetic fiber. Processing Defects Stain Fluff stain Color stain Crease Peaching crease

Machine stoppage Color warp patta Color dhabba Patches dagi Water mark Shade variation Handling stain Oil stain Abrasions Rubber impressions Hard crease Short width Skew Color weft patta Moon mark Chemical hole C/S Printing: Printing is the process of putting or importing a definite design on the cloth on which it is done. This is done to beautify the cloth so as to attract the customer to buy it. In the printing section required design firstly comes from the design section, which is traced on the screen. The process of printing is done in two ways: Screen Printing Rotary Printing

Screen-printing: PBA powder 1Mug and 5 Liters of water are mixed to form a transparent paste and cooked for 8 hours. Ammonium dichromate crystals are mixed with poster co lour and mixed in the paste formed. In the end, 1full cup of 25%extra pure Ammonium solution is mixed. Rotary printing: In this section rotary nickel screen is used. The result depends upon the no. of mesh used to prepare the screen. For developing photo emulsion and dichromate is used. The final curing of printed material is given at 150 degree Celsius so that the color fixes properly and it doesn’t spread.

Laboratory: The sample cloth comes to laboratory from CD department where with the help of various sophisticated machines and techniques, the various aspects about the fabric is passed through their on rigorous litmus testing. . HYPERLINK “http://www. jcttextiles. com/Tech09. htm” “_blank” NON PRODUCTION DEPARTMENTS Non Production Departments comprises of the following: 1). WAREHOUSE It is a department where the final product is brought and is prepared for dispatch. Grey cloths come to Ware House direct from loom.

The main function of warehousing and folding department is to detect the defects that appear on the fabric and to rectify the defects to the maximum possible extent. After the mending process the fabric is cut according to the demand of the customer and subsequently packaging is done as per the customer demand and hence they are made ready for shipment. Types of Warehouse at JCT Phagwara Grey warehouse Cotton warehouse Synthetic warehouse Following process / activity is being operated in this section: Mending:This process is used to find defects in the cloth under lights. Inspection:An inspection machine is used to check the fault.

Planting:Planting machine is used to measure the cloth. Grading:Processed cloth is graded on the basis of quality. Packaging : All exports FCL(Container packaging)are placed on Stretch warping. All exports LCL (Truck load) are packed by HDPE There are certain faults and damages, which are left in the cloth even if the cloth is processed carefully. Following are the types of damages possible:- Crack Patties Double picks Lashing Floats Shuttle floats Designing cuts Swai Phutki Draw picks Missing ends Reed marks Stain

Salvage Torn Packing is done on the basis of following standards: Suiting:- Plain Suiting200 meters one bale Fancy Suiting120 meters one bale Matty150-160 meters one bale Shirting:- Plain Suiting200 meters one bale Fancy Suiting200 meters one bale Rubia400-500 meters one bale That part of the cloth which is not included in the bales or the rejected part of cloth are further divided into chindies, fents and rags depending on their lengths . Warehouse Cotton Warehouse Synthetic Warehouse Grey Export 2). Marketing MARKETING DEPARTMENT Marketing Department plays anchor role in the company.

Zonal distribution is done for the convenience in marketing. Under zone1, U. P. and Rajasthan come under zone2, rest of area is taken. The marketing manager at the mill is concerned with the vice president (marketing).. Marketing department is assisted by A/C department, Fabric development dept, warehouse production department. Marketing Department-A Profile Production Division Institutional Sales Cotton RMG Local Synthetics RMG Local Average Sales 25 lacks meters of ex-mill of 16 crores Administrative Controls Regional Sales office Jaipur

Calcutta Delhi Chennai. Ahmedabad Marketing Department The marketing Department of JCT is the department that is in direct contact with its customers. It’s this department that takes the orders from them and sends it further to the planning department so that it can decide the spin plan and weave plan for the coming months. The Product Category JCT manufactures a large variety of products depending upon the requirements of the customer’s . Yet it specialize in cotton and 100%cotton fabrics. Also among all the fabric that it manufactures 80%in bottom wear and the remaining 20%is shirting material.

The product range can also be classified according to the end fabric type. It falls into three categories. Dyed fabrics Bleached fabric Ready to dye fabric Grey fabric Wardrobe-JCT’s brand Besides regular customers JCT also has customers who come through International exhibitors Buyers Agents At present in JCT demand is more than supply and therefore they are focusing only on bulk orders and renowned names so that there are fewer orders being processed at a point of time and thus the productivity is more. The main competitors of JCT include Vardhman Aashima Nahar Alok industries Arvind Mills elspun The marketing is divided into three broad categories each catering to a different customer segment After the manufacturing process is over, it is the duty of the marketing department to sell these manufactured goods to the retailers and wholesalers at profitable rates. The marketing department has three sections: DOMESTIC MARKETING This department deals with the sale of fabric for the Indian Market. The average sale per month is around 8 Lakhs. Only processes fabric is sold to the domestic market which mostly includes shirting material that is bleached and suiting material that is dyed.

The orders are obtained either from wholesalers directly or agents that get the deal done for whole sellers. JCT also has its own distribution network and agents which deal with this market. The wholesalers sell it to retailers from where it reaches the final customers. JCT is largest supplier of fabrics for ministry for ministry of defense and has been a reliable supplier for past 25 years. JCT has a strong presence in school uniforms and institutional suiting and shirting. JCT has the largest dealer and distribution network. RMG MARKETING Fabric supply to garment exporters in India.

Most of the business is nominated and is routed through buying houses. Major buying houses are Gap, Triburg, Impulse, Nike, etc which India Offices are for retail chains across the world. Buying House acts as a monitor. It approves the quality, finalizes the delivery schedule with mills and assigns the garmenting responsibility to a garmented which ships the garments to the respective destinations. EXPORTS The shuttle less looms mainly manufactures the fabric for export since they can produce higher quality product. When a customer approaches JCT he comes with a fabric switch or specification details.

Accordingly a few samples are developed in the factory, given for tests and then give to customers with its properties for selection. The customer selects one of the samples and negotiates on cost and delivery time after which the order is confirmed. It is at this time that a LC (letter of credit) is opened in a bank by the customer in his country. This LC secures the company about the payment it has to receive after delivering the order. The league time of orders ranges from 30-80 days with an average of 60 depending upon the type of order received.

Once the fabric is manufactured and packed to be delivered it is taken to the Mumbai port in trucks so that it can be exported. And it takes around a week. After this they are sent in vessels to the destination they are meant for. In exports the government takes no excise duty. Govt also gives incentives to exporters to promote export in the country. The product range exported: Dyed fabrics (75%) Ready to dye fabric (20%) Yarn dyed fabric (5%) The countries to which exports take place: Asian region Eastern Europe-Italy, Spain, Germany, France, UK Russia United States Australia-Fiji The export segment is divided into three main regions

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