PROFETH (PROFESSIONAL ETHICS WITH VALUES FORMATION) Ethics is derived from the Greek word ETHOS which means “characteristic way of living”. Its Latin equivalent is mos, mores, meaning “tradition of custom”. Ethos includes mannerisms, religion, politics, law and social aspirations of a group of people. Ethics is defined as the science of the morality of human acts. Ethics is the study of human motivation, and ultimately, of human rational behaviour. That aspect of subject matter which primarily interests Ethics is MORALITY. Human Acts are those actions performed by man knowingly, and freely.
They are also called deliberate or intentional actions, or voluntary actions. That makes it different from the so called Acts of Man which are instinctive and involuntary. Morality is the quality of human acts by which they are constituted as good, bad or indifferent. They are manifestation of one’s character or moral conduct. A person who has the habit or inclination to do good is said to be VIRTUOUS. One who has the habit of doing wrong is VICIOUS. ETHICS AS VALUE EDUCATION Ethics is the rational foundation of any attempt at Value Education. Ethics goes deeper into tyh reasons why we must choose certain values.
Ethics explain human values in relation to the ultimate purpose of human existence. The Art of Correct Living Art is the appreciation of beauty. It implies order and harmony of parts in a given whole. Importance of Ethics Ethics is an indispensable knowledge. Without moral perception, man is only an animal. Without morality, man as a rational being is a failure. Moral integrity is the only true measure of what man ought to be. Morality is the foundation of every human society. Without morality, communities perish; without personality, their survival has no value. Two Ethical System ) The Atheistic approach assumes that only matter exists and that man is responsible only to himself since there is no God who create sand rules the universe. Morality is an invention of man to suit his requirements and to preserve his society. Moral rules are temporary and mutable depending on the situation. Accordingly, the concept of good and evil is always relative and changeable. b)The theistic approach begins with the assumption that God is the Supreme Lawgiver. Everything must conform to God’s eternal plan of creation. Man must exercise his freedom in accordance with the God’s will.
There are absolute principles of morality which are not changeable. Man is accountable for his actions and deserves either a reward or punishment in this life or in the next. Ethics and Religion Ethics is a science and depends upon rational investigation of its truths. Religion is a system of beliefs and practices based on faith or revelation. Ethics teaches the value of religion, presenting it as a duty to the Almighty. Religion contributes to the teaching of ethics and continues to enrich with its moral insights. Religion provides both the direction and motivation fo the moral life of the people.
All religion holds life in deep respect and propose universal brotherhood as necessary for global peace and prosperity. Ethics and Law Ethics studies human motivation. It goes deeper than the study of external actions. It explodes thoughts and feelings. It requires man desires that which is good and act in accordance with that desire. Law requires that we perform the required action regardless of our feelings towards such action. The law is concerned with the externality of the act. Law is concerned with what we do, not with what we feel. Ethical norms cover thoughts and feelings. Laws do not judge man’s thoughts and desires.
THE HUMAN ACTS Human acts are those actions which man performs knowingly, freely and voluntarily, actions that are the result of conscious knowledge and are subject to the control of the will. These actions are deliberate, intentional or voluntary. Acts of man are those which happen in man. They are instinctive and are not within the control of the will. Ex. Biological and physiological movements in man such as metabolism, respiration, fear, anger, love, and jealousy. Kinds of Elicited Human Acts Human acts are either elicited or commanded acts. Elicited acts are those performed by the will and are not bodily externalized.
Following are elicited acts: a) Wish – tendency of the will towards something whether this be realizable or not. The object of wishing may included the impossible or that which is remotely possible, like winning the lotto. b)Intention – is the tendency of the will towards something attainable but without necessarily committing oneself to attain it. Ex. To study the lesson, attend a party c)Consent – is the acceptance of the will of those needed to carry out the intention. d)Election – is the selection of the will of those means effective enough to carry out the intention. )Use is the command of the will to make use of those means elected to carry out the intention. f)Fruition – is the enjoyment of the will derived from the attainment of the thing he had earlier desired. Commanded acts are those done either by man’s mental or bodily powers under the command of the will. Commanded acts are either internal or external. Internal actions – conscious reasoning, recalling something, encouraging oneself, etc External Actions – walking, eating, dancing, writing, singing, etc. Combination of internal and external Acts – ex. reading, driving a car, writing a letter. , etc.