CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1. 1 Background of the Study A hotel is an establishment that provides paid lodging on a short-term basis. The provision of basic accommodation, in times past, consisting only of a room with a bed, a cupboard, a small table and a washstand has largely been replaced by rooms with modern facilities. As internet technology has improved, so have reservation systems. Today, it is possible through online, to make a reservation for a hotel anywhere in the world. Hotels can create Web site and post new content on it every day.
Dagupan Garden and Dagupan Village Hotels are twin hotels nestled in a calm suburban area of Dagupan City away from the hustle and activity of the city’s main commercial and business center. The management encountered several problems in reservation like phone call misunderstandings; the management have no clear conversation with the guest over the telephone with regards to the information from the guest. Another is conflict regarding the availability of rooms, the guest reserves a room personally without knowing that the rooms are fully booked.
Waste of time for the customers is another problem; the guest will have to find another hotel when the rooms are fully booked. The proponents decided to develop a system that will simplify the task of traditional booking. The proposed system will provide users a unique, spontaneous and easy to use interface that improves the way people use the web today. 1. 2 Statement of the Problem The proposed system deals with the problems encountered by the management as well as the guests. This study is sub-divided into the following specific problems. 1. Phone call misunderstandings
Through phone call reservations, the management finds it hard to have a clear conversation with the guest over the telephone with regards to the needed information from the guest. 2. Conflicts regarding room availability For instance, the guest personally reserves a room without inquiring or knowing that the rooms are fully booked and occupied. 3. Waste of time for the guests When a guest personally reserves a room on the spot without inquiring, if the rooms are fully booked, then the guest will have to find another hotel. 1. 3Objectives of the Study
The primary objective of the study is to develop an online reservation system. Specifically, this study aims to: 1. To provide the management an accurate and precise information from the guests. 2. To help the management and guest review options from available rooms and function halls and rates. 3. To provide the guests an easy and convenient way of reserving or booking rooms and function halls in a short period of time. 4. To promote international, regional and domestic tourism. With the proposed system, it will help the management to handle the reservation. 1. 4 Scope and Delimitation
The scope of the proposed system will focus on the development of Online Reservation System of Dagupan Garden/Village Hotel. It will cover the online reservation of rooms and events and online cancellation. It also covers the payment through bank deposits. It delimits the payment via use of credit card. 1. 5 Methods and Procedures The proponents will use the following methods and procedures to gather information needed for the proposed system. 1. 5. 1 Data Gathering Techniques The proponents will use the following techniques to gather information needed for the proposed system.
Brainstorming – The proponents shared each other their ideas, knowledge, and suggestions about the concept of the proposed system. Research – to be able to gather the required information needed for the proposed system, the proponents will use the internet to gather other information about the proposed system. Interview- to be able to gather the required information personally from the management needed for their study. 1. 5. 2 Development Methods The proponents will use Prototyping Model in developing the system to ncrease the flexibility of the development process by allowing the management to interact and experiment with a working representation of the system. The developmental process only continues once the management is satisfied with the functioning of the prototype. At that stage the proponents determine the specifications of the management’s real needs. 1. Identifying basic requirements The proponents will determine the basic requirements including the needed resources for the proposed system such as the computer, internet connection, the existing web site of the hotel and books for research activities. 2.
Developing initial prototype The initial prototype is developed and the proponents will design the user interface of the proposed system. 3. Review The proponents will examine the prototype and will make some additions or changes to the proposed system. 4. Revising and enhancing the prototype The proponents will make some corrections and will formulate more concepts to be applied in enhancing the prototype. CHAPTER 2 THE EXISTING SYSTEM 2. 1 Overview of the Existing System In this chapter the proponents will discuss about the existing system, the traditional way of reserving a room and event on a hotel.
In able to reserve, the guest will make reservations through a phone call. This traditional way of making reservations does not provide convenience for the guest. Through phone calls occasionally the guest and the reserving clerk don’t understand each other and no clear conversations. The information from the guest will not be accurately recorded in the registry form. Another way of reserving a room and event is through walk-in wherein the guest personally inquires and reserve in the hotel. This way of reservation could waste the guest’s time.
In the existing system (reservation of rooms and events), the guest will inquire personally or through phone call in exchange for the reservation form. After filling up, the guest will submit the reservation form to the clerk. The clerk will record the reservation in the reservation record and will compile the reservation forms in a file cabinet. If the clerk misplaced certain record, it took a lot of time for the clerk to find such records. Regarding with the check-out of the guest, the clerk checked each record just to find the record. These are some of the disadvantages in terms of compilation of guest’s records.
The proponents figured out what would be the better way of reserving on the said hotel; the proponents came out with developing an online reservation system. This system will provide a solution that corresponds to the problems encountered under the existing system. 2. 2 Process Modeling Data Flow Diagram is a graphical representation of the “flow” of data through an information system. The proponents will use Data Flow Diagram to show the flow of information through a system. The context diagram shows the entire system as a single process and the interaction between the system and external agents which act as data sources.
The Top Level Diagram shows all processes at the first level of numbering, data stores, external entities and the data flows between them to show the major and high-level processes of the system and their interrelation. Figure 1 Context Data Flow Diagram of the Existing System (Room (Walk-in) and Function Hall Reservation) This diagram of the existing system shows the manual process of reservation and the storage of the records. R. Form R. Form Figure 2 Top Level Data Flow Diagram of the Existing System Room Reservation-Walk-in and Function hall) CHAPTER 3 THE PROPOSED SYSTEM 3. 1 Overview of the Proposed System After the detailed study of current system, it is good to propose a new system. As internet is one of the leading technologies today, the proponents will develop a web-based system, which will fulfill all the requirements of the management as well as the guests easily and will be the solution to the problem faced by traditional system. The proposed system will change the traditional system in reserving into a modernized one.
This system will help the management and the guests to exercise an effective and timely decision-making. Through the proposed system, it minimizes work and lessens the time, effort and money of the management and users/guests. The proposed system will be designed with a user friendly interface for better user interaction; interactive inputs screen is well designed. The users/guests would make data entry simple. In the proposed system, the guest will have to register or to create an account to be an authenticated user and to be able to proceed to the reservation.
After logging in, the guest will now choose either room, birthday or wedding reservation. The guest will have to fill up the online form. In the room reservation, the guest will be able to choose what type of room he wants and the corresponding price. Or the guests will just go to the guest rooms’ page and click the image of the room he wants to reserve. On the other hand, in wedding and birthday reservation, the guest will just fill up the form. When the guest submits the form, it will be saved automatically on the database provided by the system.
The proposed system also provides the guest to cancel his reservation. In terms of payment, the guest will deposit the payment to the hotel’s bank account, and then the bank will update the management regularly if there is a deposit made. Once the bank updated the hotel’s management about the guest’s payment, the administrator will now confirm the reservation. For the guest to know if his reservation was confirmed, the guest will log in and view his reservations, it will be indicated there whether confirmed or not, “Yes” if confirmed, otherwise “No” if not.
The proposed system aims to provide the management accurate and precise information from the guests. To help the management and guest review options from available rooms and function halls and rates. To provide the guests an easy and convenient way of reserving or booking rooms and function halls in a short period of time and to promote international, regional and domestic tourism. It will be a benefit to the guests in such a way that the proposed system is easy to use, no technical skills or expertise are required, all it takes is a computer with internet access. 3. 2. System Requirements and Specifications
This will cover the overall description of the system to be implemented, process model, data model, the system architecture as well as the software and hardware requirements. The proposed system requires Php, MySQL and Macromedia because all the necessary components are found in these softwares. The proposed system will provide an easy user-interaction for the management and the guests. The proponents will have need of training in the use the said system to manage and maintain the system’s database. 3. 2. 1 Process Modeling The proponents will use Data Flow Diagram to show the flow of information through a system.
This diagram shows the flow of the proposed system. Figure 3 Context Data Flow Diagram of the Proposed System This diagram shows the automated process of reservation and the storage of records in the database provided by the proposed system. Figure 4 Top Level Data Flow Diagram of the Proposed System 3. 2. 3Data Model of the Proposed System Data modeling is a method used to define and analyze data requirements needed to support the business processes of an organization. It is also a technique for detailing business requirements for a database. 3. 2. 3. 1Entity-Relationship Diagram of the Proposed System
The proponents will use Entity-Relationship Diagram to show entities in a database and relationships between tables within that database. 3. 2. 4Technical Solution This will cover the information on the hardware and software requirements on the development and implementation of the proposed system. These are mentioned to know the compatibility specifications of the system being developed by the proponents. Since the reservation will be done online, it is advisable to use online processing method. Wherein the online transaction handles when and where they occur and the output is provided directly to the users.
When a guest views the Dagupan Garden/Village Hotel’s web site, the guest needs to register first to be an authenticated user. After creating the account, the guest can now make reservation by filling up all the needed information provided by the system. In this manner, the interaction between the guest and the system will not be delayed. Security concern is one of the features to be considered in the proposed system for both guests and management. This is to ensure the data and transaction involve in the system. The customer needs to register first to have a user account in order to log in and to access the reservation page.
A script that validates input from the user is also included to ensure that the data provided by the user are real and corresponds to the data type needed. In part of the administration, before the administrator can access the system, he is required to provide correct username and password provided by the management. 3. 2. 4. 1System Architecture The online reservation system used an Internet-based Architecture wherein the responsibility for the interface from the client to the server simplifies the process of data transmission and the result in lower hardware costs and complexities.
The system used an in-house development in order to meet the requirements needed by the system, because the system is designed to specify the needs of the business. In-house development also provides flexibility for the system to adapt the rapid changes in information technology. 3. 2. 4. 2Hardware and Software Requirements Table1. Minimum Hardware Requirements (During Development) Computer Unit SpecificationDescription ProcessorAt least 1. 73 Ghz (Celeron) Memory1Gb (DDR) Hard Disk Drive80 Gb Table2. Minimum Software Requirements (During Development) Software SpecificationDescription
PhpProgramming Language MySQLdatabase Macromedia Dreamweaver 8User interface 3. 3Implementation Requirements Once the system is implemented and already used by the hotel, the parallel changeover method will be used. When the new system does not work correctly, the old reservation system will be used as a back up until appropriate changes are made. In this operation, the new system will verify if it is working properly because the output of both systems is compared and verified. User training is another requirement that should be considered in implementation of the system.
The system requires training for users and managers in order to understand and use the system effectively. The proponents used software tools to determine the errors of the program. Each program is being tested to make sure that it functions correctly. It includes the unit integration and system testing to eliminate and identify errors that could terminate the program. This is to assure that the program meets all specification and all the necessary features have been included. On the other hand, the management could use a parallel installation for the implementation phase.
This kind of installation might be costly but information from the old and new system is carefully backed up. This is one of the advantages of using the system at the same time. 3. 3. 1Hardware and Software Requirements Table1. Minimum Hardware requirements (During Implementation) Computer Unit SpecificationDescription ProcessorAt least 2. 5 Ghz (Dual core) Memory1Gb (DDR) Hard Disk Drive160 Gb Table2. Minimum Software requirements (During Implementation) Software SpecificationDescription PhpProgramming Language MySQLdatabase 3. 4 Feasibility Analysis 3. 4. 1 Technical Feasibility
The proposed system is technically feasible in terms of software. The proponents will use the following software application to design the proposed system, Macromedia Dreamweaver 8 to develop the user interface of the proposed system and Php and MySql for the database needed by the system. In terms of hardware the proposed system is technically feasible if the minimum hardware requirement will be used like Pentium 4 for processor, 512Mb for the memory and VGA 128 Mb for the graphics. It also requires web browsers like Internet Explorer, Mozilla Firefox or Google Chrome to access the proposed system. . 4. 2 Operational Feasibility The proposed system provides faster and convenient way for reserving a room or an event in the said hotel and it will reduce time considerably. This will be appreciated by the management and the users/guests. It will be a benefit to both management and the users/guests. The users/guests will not have to invest their time and effort in learning how to use it because it provides attractive and easy user interaction. Table 2 Workload Comparison ProcessExisting SystemProposed System Filling up the reservation formThe guest will fill up the registry form sheet.
In this manner the guest is prone to commit errors and/or erasures. This is the reason why there are misunderstandings between the clerk and the guest. The guest will fill up the online reservation form in a user interface. It will provide an error free filled up form. Reservation The guest will personally reserve through walk-in or will make a call to reserve a room or an event. The guest will reserve a room or an event through the internet. CancellationThe guest will cancel reservation through phone or personally (walk-in). The guest will cancel reservation via online. 3. 4. 3 Schedule Feasibility
To figure out all necessary plans and activities that the proponents will use Gantt chart. The Gantt chart is a useful tool for documenting plans and schedules of activities that may attain to develop the proposed system. 3. 4. 4 Economic Feasibility In order to ensure that the proposed system is economically feasible the proponents list the following in order to show that the proposed system is worth for implementing. The proposed system has passed the Pay Back Period test which stated that the cost of development that the proposed system will spend will back after 3 years, 8 months, 12 days.
Next in return on investment test the proposed system will return 84% yearly. Finally, the Cost Benefit Analysis which stated that the benefit of the proposed system outweighs the cost of development requires by the proposed system. After passing the entire economic test the proposed system is stated as economically feasible. Cost-Benefit Analysis Table 3 Development Cost (DC) ExpensesQuantityPrice Macromedia Dreamweaver 81Php 5,198 Php and MySql1Opensource Macromedia Flash 81Php 9,353 Computer Unit1Php 23, 500 Total:Php 38, 051. 00 Source: http://www. google. com Table 4
Operating Cost (OP) ExpensesUnit PriceCost Web HostingPhp 10,999 AnnuallyPhp 10,999 TotalPhp 10,999 Source: http://www. imapweb. com/ Table 5 Cost and Benefit Analysis (CBA) Comparative Table YearCostBenefitsNBCNBMark 038, 051 110,99927, 05216, 053-21, 998 X 211, 548. 9531, 109. 819, 560. 85-2, 437. 15 X 312, 126. 3935, 776. 2723, 649. 8821, 212. 73? 412, 732. 7141, 142. 7128, 41049, 622. 73? 513, 369. 3547, 314. 1233, 944. 7783, 567. 5? Total98, 827. 4182, 394. 9121, 618. 5154, 402. 96 Note: 15% increase every year in benefits and 5% for the cost Pay Back Period
PBP = Development Cost – Last CNB x-mark + No. of X mark Net Benefit of first check mark = 38, 051-(-2, 437. 15) + 2 23, 649. 88 = 40, 488. 15 + 2 23, 649. 88 = 1. 71 + 2 = 3. 71 = 3 years, 8 months, 12 days Return on Investments ROI = Total Benefit – Total Cost x 100% Total Cost = 182, 394. 9- 98, 827. 4 x 100% 98, 827. 4 = 83, 567. 5 x 100% 98, 827. 4 = 0. 84 x 100% = 84% CHAPTER 4 CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS 4. 1 Conclusion The proposed system will provide an easy and convenient way of sending reservation through the use of web.
The system also ensure that the information provided by the guest will be treated confidential and provide necessary security for its privacy. The system also advertises the services that Dagupan Garden/ Village Hotel offer. 4. 2 Recommendations Since the manual system has been replaced by the proposed system, the proponents would recommend to the management and the guests that it would be much more advisable to use the automated way of reserving. The proposed system will help the management and the guests to carry out business transaction a lot easier.