Kota Fibres, Ltd

Case Report for Kota Fibres, Ltd. Group 7 BA 141 (WFY) 8/11/2010 Table of Contents Point of View ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 1 Case Context …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 1 Problem Definition …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. Framework of Analysis ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 1 Analysis ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 2 Decision …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 6 Justification of Decision …………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. Implementation of Decision……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 7 Appendix …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 8 Bibliography ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 33 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY The group took the point of view of management for the case of Kota Fibres, Ltd.

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The goal of maximizing shareholder wealth was the backdrop against evaluations of the company’s health and proposals to improve the same were made. Kota Fibres’ main problem was fairly straightforward: the management of the company’s cash holdings was inefficient. This was reflected in the smaller problems that the company faced in 2001. An evaluation of the company’s profitability showed increasing price competition; liquidity, a dispiriting debt position; efficiency; a long cash conversion cycle; and leverage, increasing dependence on borrowed capital.

Coupled with unfavorable market conditions, the events responsible for Kota Fibres’ financial health confirmed the company’s weak cash position. Cash flows were not only weak, but they were also drained by large dividend distributions. Management paid high dividends to shareholders for many years under the misapprehension that reinvesting in it in the business was necessarily riskier. Ironically, it was keeping cash out of the business that increased credit risk, devalued Kota Fibres as a manufacturing firm and reduced shareholder wealth.

In addition to cutting back on dividend distributions (at least until the company stabilized), the group also recommended implementing the Transportation manager’s proposal of reducing the rawmaterial-inventory requirement to 30 days to improve the company’s cash position and meet the demands of the heavy production and selling season ahead. I. Point of View: Management II. Case Context Kota Fibres, Ltd. was founded in 1962 to produce nylon fiber at its only plant in Kota, India. The company supplies synthetic fiber yarns to a steady ranchise of small local textile weavers that produce colorful cloths for making saris. The synthetic-textile market in India within the time frame of the case was driven by competitions in price, service and credit. For Kota Fibres, a large end-customer base of nearly 500 million Indian women and a relatively inelastic demand for its synthetic fiber yarns made the company a profitable enterprise. In fact, unit growth in the industry was expected to be 15 percent per year. However, Kota Fibres’ profit margins began to thin due to increasing price competition in the market.

Management, in turn, adopted a seasonal production cycle that regrettably generated seasonal training and set-up costs and labor unrest. Moreover, operating expenses were estimated to be 6 percent of sales in 2001, a figure higher compared to last year’s. Interestingly, this was due to the addition of a quality-control department, for which there had been no indications of a need for one, and the three young nephews of Mrs. Pundir, in whom she hoped to build an allegiance to the family business. She also proposed to pay dividends of Rs500,000 per quarter to only 11 individuals who held the entire equity of Kota Fibres, Ltd.

Incidentally, these 11 individuals were members of her extended family. III. Problem Definition: Mrs. Pundir’s management of Kota Fibres’ cash is inefficient. Because the company is already anticipating the heavy selling season, the problem thus requires a solution that will generate cash inflows in the immediate future. IV. Framework for Analysis A. Gaining Familiarity B. Identifying the Problem C. Recognizing Sub-problems D. Identifying Goal/s E. Analyzing the Case F. Recommendation V. Analysis A. Gaining Familiarity Please refer to the Case Context above.

B. Identifying the Problem Please refer to the Problem Definition in the previous page. C. Recognizing Sub-problems In 2001, Kota Fibres faced several sub-problems that reflected, if not confirmed, the inefficient management of the company’s cash holdings. Frequently overdrawn bank account Unpaid excise tax Delayed customer deliveries – suspended collections of sales Impaired credit profile Large dividend distributions D. Identifying Goal/s 1. To determine how the proposals of Mrs. Pundir’s middle-managers may improve Kota Fibres’ cash position 2.

To provide Kota Fibres with an improved financial plan to present to the bank that will qualify the company for an extension of credit, in order to meet the demands of the heavy selling season ahead E. Analyzing the Case Part 1: An evaluation of Kota Fibres’ profitability, efficiency, liquidity and leverage The following were attributed to the company’s position in the market and additions to operations: CGS and OPEX increased by nearly 50 percent in 2001 from the base year. Net profit was reduced by 60 percent in 2001. (Refer to Table 2, Figures 5, 7 to 10).

Net and operating profit margins decreased from 1999 to 2000 by 3 percent and from 2000 to 2001 by 2 percent. (Refer to Table 1, Figure 6). Decreases in EBIT and net profit ? decrease of 10 percent in ROA and ROE in 2001 (Refer to Figures 4 to 6, 13) Notably, interest expenses grew about a 100 percent in the same year, which implied that the company planned to borrow more money in 2001. (Refer to Figures 11 and 12). The company’s liquidity position fell about 200 percent in 2001 because of a 400 percent increase in notes payable to the bank in the same year. (Refer to Figure 14). Kota Fibres’ cash holdings were only 5. 3 percent of total assets in 2000 and even fell in 2001. This percentage barely covered half of the company’s current liabilities and alerted the group to the possibility of bankruptcy. (Refer to Table 6, Figure 22). Kota Fibres’ working capital was only 24 percent and 14 percent of total assets in 2000 and 2001, respectively. (Refer to Figure 17). The group expected a higher figure, especially for a manufacturing company, but learned that the company’s cash position might have been responsible for the drop in the figure. There was also a sharp fall in Kota Fibres’ equity-debt ratio due to a 200 percent increase in total debt in 2001. Refer to Figure 15). The company’s forecasted debt position was dismal thus far. Kota Fibres’ inventory, accounts receivable and accounts payable turnover ratios decreased in 2001 because inventory, A/R and A/P increased in the same year. Figures for days inventory and average collection and payment periods increased consequently, resulting in an operating cycle of 18 days in 2000 and 21 days in 2001. (Refer to Figure 19). However, when the averages of inventory, A/R and A/P for the year ending 2001 were used in determining the turnover ratios, new figures showed that the company was actually terribly inefficient.

Seasonal fluctuations in inventory, A/R and A/P accounted for averages higher than the ending balances of the same in 2001. These, in turn, produced a figure of 72 days for cash conversion cycle. (Refer to Figure 20). In other words, the company doesn’t expect to realize cash from its acquisition of inventory within intervals of nearly three months in 2001. The following were the reasons why the bank didn’t extend any more credit to Kota Fibres: Poor cash holdings Increases in interest obligations and decreases in EBIT – decreases in nterest coverage ability from 1999 to 2001 (Refer to Figure 21) Declining cash-debt coverage figures (Refer to Figure 22) Despite having an equity-based financial structure, ratios for leverage revealed that the extent of non-owner claims to Kota Fibres’ assets in 2001 nearly tripled from 2000. Likewise, assets were thrice more funded by creditors in 2001. (Refer to Figures 23 and 24). Unfortunately, the increases in Kota Fibres’ borrowing activities in 2000 were neither supported by increases in cash inflows nor supportive of possible cash inflows.

In fact, the company may need to borrow some money from the bank in order to maintain a cash balance of Rs750,000 in 2001. (Refer to Figures 25 and 26). Part 2: An evaluation of the proposals of Mrs. Pundir’s middle-managers. Assumptions made for each proposal are as follows. Extend current credit terms of 45 days to 80 days for Pondicherry Textiles. Rs6,000,000 Sales: 1. Because Pondicherry Textiles was expected to purchase from Kota Fibres across the year, the group allocated Rs6M throughout 2001 according to the purchase pattern of the latter’s customers. 2.

Collections from the sale to Pondicherry Textiles were reflected after 80 days of forecasted sales made for every month in 2001. (Refer to Tables 8 and 9) Reduce raw-material inventory requirement from 60 days to 30 1. Raw materials per month of 2001 = 55 percent of sales expected to be made two months later. 2. Raw materials turnover ratio = CGS/Raw materials 3. Days raw materials = 360/RM turnover 4. Because the same amount of material will be purchased by Kota days. Purchases: (same) Fibres, only the requirement for days raw materials was changed—60 to 30 days (Refer to Tables 10 and 11)

Accept Japanese firm’s proposal to supply expected to be made two months later on a just-in-time basis, which may reduce pellets inventory to 2 (or 3) days outstanding. 1. Pellet-RM per month of 2001 = 35 percent of 55 percent of sales 2. Pellet-RM turnover ratio = CGS/Pellet-RM polyester pellets , 3. Days pellet-RM = 360/Pellet-RM turnover 4. Because the same amount of pellets will be purchased by Kota Fibres, only the requirement for days pellet-RM was changed—60 to 2 days. (Refer to Tables 12 and 13) Implement a scheme of level production. annual 1.

In economics, the cost of producing a good is the cost of its factor input. The group decided to simplify the implementation of this particular proposal by equating the cost of production with the cost of labor. 2. Figures for net sales were used in the computation of GPM, which was adjusted to reflect labor savings in OPEX. (Refer to Tables 14 and 15) The effects of each proposal were made to reflect in the Schedule of Cash Receipts and Disbursements, supported by adjustments made to the Forecast T-Accounts. Each proposal was implemented, that is, “plugged into” the existing schedule and t-accounts, independently.

Tables 8 to 15 show that the second proposal produced the least amount of debt outstanding, Rs2,704,866, at the end of 2001. By reducing the length of time that inventory was held in the warehouses, decreases in storage and holding costs significantly reduced operating expenses. Mrs. Pundir’s original forecast for Debt Outstanding was Rs3,463,701. [Note: Though the third proposal reduced the original forecast for debt outstanding to Rs3,017,128, the effects of implementing the same show a slightly higher figure for Purchases because such raw materials were purchased more often. Refer to Tables 5 and 12). ] The same proposal also produced the greatest percentage for cash as a percentage of total assets—nearly 5 percent. Though the first proposal increased A/R the most, cash collections were far in between due to the extension of credit terms. Consequently, this proposal produced the largest amount of debt outstanding at the end of 2001. (Refer to Table 5). Net cash inflows of Rs46,814 under the first proposal and Rs287,850 under the second proposal were used to pay the bank in December. Refer to Tables 8 and 10). The last two proposals produced not only the second and third largest amounts of debt outstanding, respectively, but also the only net cash outflows, the amounts of which were subsequently borrowed from the bank. (Refer to Tables 5, 12 and 14). Table 1 shows a ratio analysis of the effects of the implementation of each proposal. F. Recommendation The group recommends the implementation of the Transportation manager’s proposal to reduce the raw-material-inventory requirement from 60 days to 30 days. VI. Decision

Tables 10 and 11 show the effects of the implementation of the second proposal on the Schedule of Cash Receipts and Disbursements and on the Forecast T-Accounts. The same figures show that Kota Fibres is still indebted to the bank in the amount of Rs2,704,866. In addition to the implementation of the second proposal, the group recommends the proposed yearly dividend distributions (Rs2,000,000) to be reinvested in the company and be used to pay the bank. The group also recommends the issuance of equity securities to raise funds to pay the balance.

Furthermore, the group advises management to consider equity financing in raising funds for heavy selling seasons in the future. For now though the group believes that the recommendations given thus far will be sufficient to satisfy the immediate production and selling needs of Kota Fibres. VII. Basic Justifications of Decision The large dividend distributions that Mrs. Pundir made to the company’s 11 shareholders (also members of her extended family) were primarily accountable for the company’s poor cash position. The Pundir family believed that excess funds retained in the business were at greater risk than the

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