Introduction to Psychology

Prologue: 1) Psychology: the scientific study of behavior and mental processes. 2)Behavior: anything an organism does- any action we can observe and record. 3) Mental Processes: are internal, subjective experiences we infer from behavior- sensations, dreams, thoughts, beliefs, and feelings. 4) Empiricism: the view that knowledge originates in the experience and that science should, therefore, rely on observation and experimentation. 5) Structuralism: an early school of psychology that used inspection to explore the elemental structure of the human mind. )Functionalist: a chool of psychology that focused on how mental and behavioral processes function- how they enable the organism to adopt, survive, and flourish. 7) Humanistic Psychology: historically significant perspective that emphasized the growth potential of healthy people. 8) Nature-Nurture: The debate that genes or experiences make the development of psychological traits and behaviors. 9)Natural Selection: The principle that, among the range of inherited trait variations, those that lead to increased reproduction and survival will most likely be passed on to succeeding generations. ) Levels of Analysis: Differing complementary views, from biological to psychological to social-cultural, for analyzing and given phenomenon. 1 1) Biopsychological Approach: Influences of biological, psychological, and social-cultural factors. 12) Neuroscience: How the body and brain enable emotions, memories, and sensory experiences. 13) Evolutionary: How the natural selection of traits promotes the perpetuation of one’s genes. 14) Behavior Genetics: How much our genes and our environment influences our individual differences. 5) Psychodynamic: How behavior springs from unconscious drives conflict. 6) Behavioral: How we learn observable responses. 1 7) Cognitive: How we encode, process, store and retrieve info. 18) Social- Culture: How behavior and thinking vary across situations and cultures. 19) Basic Research: Pure science that aims to increase the scientific base. 20) Applied Research: Solve practical problems. 21) Counseling Psychologists: Help people deal with challenges. 22) Clinical Psychologists: Assesses and treat mental, emotional and behavioral disorders. 3) Psychiatrists: Medical doctors licensed to prescribe drugs and otherwise treat physical cause of psychological disorder. Chapter 1: Thinking Critically with Psychological Science: 24) Hindsight Bias: Tendency to believe, after the outcome, that one would have foreseen it. (AKA: I-Kew-lt-All-Along phenomenon) 25) Critical Thinking: Examines assumptions, discerns hidden values, evaluates evidence and assesses conclusion. 26) Theory: Explains through an integrated set of principles that organize and predicts behaviors or events. 7)Operational Definitions: A statement for the procedures (operations) used to define research variables. 28) Replicate: Repeat 29) Case Study: An observation technique in which one person is studied in depth in less depth. 1) False Consensus Effect: The tendency to overestimate the extent to which others share our beliefs. 32) Random Sampling: One in which every person in the entire group gas an equal chance of participating. 33) Naturalistic Observations: Observing and recording behavior in naturally occurring situations without trying. 4) Correlate: A measure of the extent to which two factors vary together, and thus of how well either factor predicts the other. 35)Correlation Coefficient: Statistical measure of a relationship (-1. 00 +1. 00) 36) Scatterplots: A graphed cluster of dots, each of which represents the values of two variables. he slope of the points suggests the direction of the relationship between the 2 variables. Illustrates perfect positive and negative correlation. 37) Illusory Correlation: The perception ofa relationship where none exists. 8) Experiment: Enable researcher to focus on the possible effect of one or more factors by 1) manipulating the factors of interest & 2) holding constant (controlling) other factors. 39) Double-Blind Procedure: Enables researchers to check a treatments actual effects apart from the research participants to the treatment, that is, to the version of the independent variable. 40) Placebo Effect: Well ocumented in reducing pain, depression and anxiety. 41) Control Condition: Condition of an experiment that contrasts with the experimental condition and serves as a comparison for evaluating the effect of treatment. 2) Experimental Condition: Condition of an experiment that expresses participants to the treatment, that is, to one version of the independent variable. 43) Independent Variable: Vary independently of other factors. 44) Dependent Variable: Vary depending on what takes place during the experiment. 45)Randomly Assigning: Assigning participants to experimental and control conditions by chance, thus minimizing preexisting ifferences between those assigned to the different groups. 46) Range: The difference between the highest and lowest scores in a distribution. 7) Standard Deviation: A computed measure of how much scores vary around the mean score. IMPORTANT STATISTICAL RULES: 1) Representative samples are better than biased samples. 2) Less-variable observation are more reliable than those that are more variable. 3) More cases are better than fewer. 48) Statical Significance: A statistical statement of how likely it is that an obtained result occurred by chance. 49) Culture: Shared ideas and behaviors that one generation passes on to the next.

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