Member of the Bath party after his uncle’s placement in the hierarchy guaranteed him a spot in the party. Heavily influenced by this, Sad Hussein’s politics becoming increasingly Arab-centric, focusing on the unification of the Middle East under one banner, Iraq’s banner. The old parliamentary regime of Iraq was overthrown, as well as the monarchy. The replacement? The Bath replacing it as the single party that held absolute control over Iraqi politics. Sad was still named “President of Iraq”, but the position was hardly democratic. Iraq did hold two elections, in 1995 and 2002.
But they were nothing more than show. In 1995, Hussein received 99. 96% of the votes, receiving only 3,052 negative votes from a population of 8. 4 million. In 2002, Sad received 100% of the votes from a, supposedly, 100% citizen turnout. Extreme and violent political repression was a hallmark of Sadism’s rule. The People’s Army, lead by Sadism’s close childhood friend, served as Sadism’s personal armed forces and worked in conjunction with he Department of General Intelligence, the Iraqi equivalent of the FBI, to suppress any dissidence to Hussein’s rule.
It is estimated that Hussein’s political repression lead to the death of over 50,000 Iraqis as well as numerous war crimes committed in Iraq and in the neighboring countries of Iran, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, and beyond. This lead a UN report to state that Mortally no citizen would risk demonstrating any opposition to the Presidency or GovernmentвЂ”or would do so at his mortal peril. ” As we can see, one of the main reasons Sad Hussein can be classified as a dictator is the brute force and absolute control he used to rule his one-party government.
Another factor that causes Sad to be labeled, as a dictator is the interaction his regime had with other political entities. A hallmark of Iraq’s interaction with other countries has been that of relying entirely on Sadism’s whims and personal relationship with the government. Iraq enjoyed close diplomatic relations with France when Jacques Circa was its Prime Minister because Circa was a good friend of Sad. However, once Circa stepped down relations rapidly deteriorated, and Iraq severed nearly all economic ties with the country.
There were also close ties between the Soviet Union and Iraq, Iraq supplying oil to the Soviets and the Soviets supplying soldiers and weaponry to keep their friend in power. But Sadism’s policies were completely ruled by his own personal beliefs, and in 1978 he initiated widespread crackdowns on Iraqi Communists, cutting off the valuable ally to his regime. Iranian and Iraqi relations were also worthy of noting. Sadism’s deeply entrenched racist attitude towards the Iranians (or “Persians” as he called them) kept the relations between the two countries strained at best.
With the ascension of a new democratic government in Iran, Sad declared war on the neighboring country resulting in a disastrous eight-year war that was estimated to cause up to one million casualties. Despite strong economic backing from many Arab countries and nearly 40 billion from the US, the war ended in a stalemate that devastated both countries. Iraq was seen as the aggressor and Sadism’s position within the Middle East rapidly deteriorated as his foreign policies became more and more erratic.
In retaliation for refusing to forgive a 30 billion dollar debt, Hussein invaded Kuwait, supposedly to help support “Kuwaiti revolutionaries” that did not exist. This provoked a huge response from the international community, the Soviet Union and United States even united to pass a did not comply. He attempted negotiations, but UN forces desolated the Iraqi army and Sad was forced to surrender, and the US imposed harsh sanctions on Iraq, keeping American-Iraqi relations tense until Hussein’s capture in 2003.
So we can see that Sad Hussein can be labeled a dictator because Iraq’s interactions with other countries were totally dominated by Hussein’s personal relations and concerns, not Iraq’s. A key trademark of a dictatorship is the cultural affects of their rule. Economic He also conducted two show elections, in 1995 and in 2002. In the 1995 referendum, conducted on 15 October, he reportedly received 99. 6% of the votes in a 99. 47% turnout, getting only 3052 negative votes among an electorate of 8. In the October 1 5, 2002 referendum he officially achieved 100% of approval votes and 100% turnout, as the electoral commission reported the next day that every one of the 11,445,638 eligible voters cast a “Yes” vote for the president.  His mother raised Sad, which literally meaner “one who confronts”, without a father for the first few years of his life before remarrying. After seven years of terror by his stepbrothers, Sad ran away to the Iraqi capital of Baghdad to live with his uncle Charily Duluth. Duluth was one of the biggest influences on young Sad.
Despite having strong family ties with the reigning government, Duluth was a high- ranking member in the revolutionary Bath Party, Bath meaning “renaissance” in Arabic. The Bath Party was a fiercely nationalist political party formed by several Iraqi politicians in the late 19th century. In the ‘ass through the ‘ass , a renewed sense of Iraqi national identity caused the Bath Party to experience an upswing in report. Sadism’s uncle Duluth was a strong factor in creating this new social incessant fro the Bath. He wrote and published the controversial book Three Whom God Should Not Have Created: Persians, Jews, and Flies.
This book outlined the new philosophy and doctrine of the Bath party. It emphasized pan-Arabic unity (unity of all Arabic-speaking people), nationalism, socialism, anti-imperialism, and later anti-democratic ideals. This political ideology affected Sad deeply and under the guidance of his uncle he attended a nationalistic high school in Baghdad. After secondary school, Sad studied at an Iraqi law school for three years, roping out in 1957 at the age of 20 to Join the Bath Party. Sad rose quickly through the Bath ranks. This period was a very volatile time for the Bath’s.
The party had held a strong position in the reigning military dictator/Prime Minister Bad al-Karri Shim’s political cabinet after they had helped him over throw the reigning monarch. At first, Assam and the Bath had significant political, social, and economic backing from the Arab nations around them. However, Assam begin to distance himself from the Bath party, angering the powerful political group. So, in retaliation, he Bath began to conspire to assassinate the Iraqi Prime Minister. Hussein, a charismatic young firebrand, was chosen to lead the plot.
During the ambush, Sad shot at Assam too quickly, disrupting the entire plan. Assam was hit in the arm and shoulder and the Bath assassins believed they had killed him. But Assam survived. The backlash was harsh and six of the assassins were given death sentences. Sad fled to Syria where he was fully admitted into the Bath by the increasingly distanced himself from socialist policies. In 1963, the Bath led a military coup, which successfully overthrew Assam. The people supported this revolution as well as international entities such as the UN and the USA as Assam had been threatening to invade Kuwait.
The Bath installed a puppet figure as leader so they could operate behind the scenes. However, he both resigned in quick succession and it was rapidly becoming obvious who controlled the party. Sad Hussein was named deputy to the first president, Abdul Raman Raff. He died in died in a plane crash in 1966, which was rumored to have been orchestrated by the Bath to assure Sadism’s ascension. In 1968, Sad participated in a bloodless coup that overthrew the parliamentary government and placed the power in the hands of a single party, the Bath.
Named Hosannas al-Baker was named the President of Iraq, with Sad as his deputy. AY-Baker was the older and more prestigious of the two, but by 1969 Hussein clearly had become the moving force behind the party. Forceful and fiery rhetoric established a cult of personality around the young Bath member and on July 16th, 1979, Sad Hussein was named President of Iraq. Up until his capture by the United States on April 9th, 2003 in his hometown of Ticket, Sad unsolicited his power into his one-party system, seeking to unite the Arab world under his banner.
He rose to become one of the most powerful men in the world, and also one of the most ruthless dictators in history. Macarthur, Neil. “Sad Hussein, Defiant Dictator Who Ruled Iraq With Violence and Fear. ” The New York Times. The New York Times, 30 Deck. 2006. Web. 08 Par. 2013. Slouching, Con. Sad: His Rise and Fall. New York, NY: Harper Perennial, 2005. Print. Swanson, Joseph. Sad Hussein’s Bath Party: Inside an Authoritarian Regime. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 2011. Print. The first article is from the New York Times.
The Times has won 108 Pulitzer Prizes, more than any other news organization. Its website is America’s most popular newspaper site, receiving more than 30 million unique visitors per month. The paper’s print version remains the metropolitan newspaper in the United States and third-largest newspaper overall. It’s longevity and large readership vouches for its reliability. The second source is a book by a London Daily Telegraph reporter who interviewed primary and secondary sources in Iraq to research the Hussein regime.
The Telegraph is a reliable newspaper and the reliance on primary or secondary information from people who directly experienced Sadism’s reign. A professor from Georgetown University writes the final source, another book that focuses closely on Sad Hussein’s regime. Georgetown University founded in 1789, it is the oldest Jesuit and Catholic university in the United States. The high-ranking position at this prestigious university that the author has would indicate good information gathering ability and a determination to be impartial, as colleges stress truth seeking and unbiased research.