Final: Motivation and Self-actualization B. Self-actualization

PSY 320: Human Motivation Final Exam Name: Instructions: This exam contains 50 questions. Each question is worth ? point. Please select the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. There is only one best answer although some answers may appear similar. Please make your choice by changing the font color of your answer for each question. Your choice must be clear. If no answer is marked, or if your choice is unclear, the qu estion will be marked as incorrect. SAMPLE: 1. Characteristics of adult learners typically include all but which one of the following? a. have accumulated life experience . have established opinions, values, and beliefs c. are intrinsically motivated d. enjoy soda and chips e. desire meaningful learning experiences Please post your completed exam in the grade book as an attachment on or before the deadline indicated in the syllabus. Good luck! ( Multiple Choice 1. In the early 1900s, most psychologists believed that motivation was explained by… a. will power b. instincts c. environmental incentives d. beliefs and expectations e. impulses 2. John believes that women make better parents than men because women have an inborn tendency to “mother” children.

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John’s statement would reflect which of the following theories of motivation? a. instinct b. incentive c. cognitive d. expectation-attribution e. physiological determination 3. External stimuli or rewards which we desire and can motivate behavior are called… a. needs b. drives c. incentives d. peripheral cues e. goal setting 4. A race car driver wants to win the prize money and feels as if the money is pulling him to win. Which of the following would explain this behavior? a. pleasure center theory b. fixed action patterns c. incentive theory d. instinct theory e. reward theory 5.

Intrinsic motivation influences us to engage in behaviors that… a. obtain rewards or incentives important for survival b. are personally rewarding c. satisfy biological needs d. are instinctual fixed action patterns e. provide for our needs 6. Intrinsic is to ____ as extrinsic is to ____. a. biological; psychological b. instinct; social c. biological; internal d. internal; external e. internal; outbound 7. Carl works hard to get A’s on his report card because his mother pays him 25 dollars. Carl’s behavior is being influenced by… a. fixed action patterns b. a hierarchy of needs c. xtrinsic motivation d. drive-reduction theory e. classical conditioning 8. An incentive is ____, whereas needs are ____. a. external; internal b. a fixed action pattern; instinctual c. a biological need; social needs d. a safety need; self-actualization needs e. complex; basic 9. Beliefs, expectations, and goals are important concepts in which of the following theories of motivation? a. instinct theory b. drive-reduction theory c. self-actualization d. cognitive theory e. reward theory 10. Which of the following words best explains incentive theory of motivation? a. pulling us b. pushing us . helping us d. propelling us e. providing for us 11. The key idea of Maslow’s hierarchy of needs is that… a. unless social needs like esteem are satisfied, one cannot deal effectively with biological needs like safety b. basic biological needs must be satisfied before higher social needs can be dealt with c. unless you achieve self-actualization, you are limiting your potential d. the lower needs are essential; the higher needs are incidental e. the stages do not need to be experienced in sequence 12. Arrange Maslow’s needs in the correct ascending order (from lowest to highest). a. hysiological, safety, belongingness, esteem, self-actualization b. self-actualization, physiological, esteem, belongingness, safety c. safety, esteem, physiological, self-actualization, belongingness d. belongingness, self-actualization, physiological, safety, esteem e. physiological, safety, belongingness, self-actualization, esteem 13. Which of the following does Locke believe have the greatest impact on the emotional response to one’s job? a. values b. salary increase c. written praise d. relationships e. monetary compensation 14. According to Whittlesey, which of the following is not a component of the changing workforce? . employees’ needs and desires are changing more quickly b. workers are not as closely supervised c. employers provide fewer safety and security needs than they used to d. employees are more motivated than they were 20 years ago e. workers have more independence 15. According to Barbara Parus, which of the following is not a component of a total rewards program? a. work environment b. pay c. learning and development d. friendship e. compensation 16. According to Herzberg’s two-factor theory, which of the following is not considered a hygiene factor? a. orking conditions b. salary c. recognition d. coworker relationships e. compensation 17. When the personal mission of employees conforms/matches the mission of the organization, Stephen Covey refers to this as… a. co-mingling b. co-responsibility c. co-ordinating d. co-missioning e. co-achieving 18. Self-actualization is most closely associated with which theorist? a. Locke b. Maslow c. Rogers d. Freud e. Jung 19. A Theory _____ view of human behavior holds that employees naturally want to be productive, want to achieve, and are capable of problem solving.

On the other hand, a Theory _____ view of human behavior holds that employees dislike work, avoid responsibility, and must be forced to do a good job. a. X, Z b. Y, X c. A, B d. X, Y e. Z, X 20. According to the text, “The study of motivation concerns those processes that give behavior its ______ and _____. ” a. focus, direction b. intensity, energy c. direction, intensity d. energy, direction e. character; intensity 21. According to Reeve, needs, cognitions, and emotions are specific types of…. a. motives b. concepts c. ideas d. theories e. drives 22.

Observing effort, latency, persistence, choice, probability of response, facial expressions, and bodily gestures helps us determine the ________ and ________ of motivation. a. duration, length b. presence, intensity c. frequency, duration d. time, energy e. duration, intensity 23. According to Bob Nelson, the No. 1 desired form of reward by employees is… a. money b. verbal praise c. a choice of rewards d. a performance review e. time off 24. According to Dimitri Pojidaeff, all of the following factors are responsible for employee resistance to change except… a. eople are seen as replaceable in the machine model b. mechanistic systems approaches have been taught in business schools for years c. organizations are fearful of providing a truly participative work environment d. wages have not kept up with inflation e. corporations view employees as expendable 25. According to Barbara Moses, “Lifestylers” would most prefer which of the following as a reward? a. additional vacation days or flextime b. an opportunity to manage a high-profile project c. a gift certificate to a favorite retailer d. a bonus e. higher status in the workplace 6. According to Stephen Covey, which is not one of the four questions effective leaders often ask? a. How is it going? b. What are you learning? c. What ways can you improve your performance? d. How can I help you? 27. Offering an extrinsic reward for an intrinsically interesting activity often undermines future intrinsic motivation. This is referred to as… a. organismic requirements b. hidden cost of reward c. negative reinforcement d. unexpected consequences e. hidden motivation 28. When a bill arrives in the mail, we need money. After being rejected, we need self-esteem.

During a downpour, we need an umbrella. These needs arise from pressures and demands in the environment and, according to our text, are referred to as… a. quasi needs b. semi needs c. partial needs d. situational needs e. observable needs 29. When we become aware of an underlying biological need—for instance, when our biological need for food becomes experienced consciously as our appetite—this psychological awareness is referred to as a (an)… a. drive b. organismic network c. suppression event d. schema e. motive Matching: Match the theory/concept on the left with the theorist on the ight. 30-35 __D___Participative Management a. Douglas McGregor __F___Two-Factor Theory b. John B. Watson __E___Hierarchy of Needs c. Alfred J. Morrow __A___Theory X and Theory Y d. James Cathcart __C___Seven Natural Values e. Abraham Maslow __B___Behaviorism f. Frederick Herzberg Matching: Match the motivational perspective on the left with its definition on the right. 36-41 __C__ Behavioral a. How motives emerge from our genetic endowment (e. g. , extraversion) __E__Biological/Physiological b. How motives emerge from unconscious mental life (e. g. , anxiety) __F__Cognitive c.

How motives emerge from environmental factors such as incentives and rewards (e. g. , money) __D__Evolutionary d. How motives emerge from encouraging human potential (e. g. , self-actualization) __A__Humanistic e. How motives emerge from the way we think and process information (e. g. , goals) __B__Psychoanalytical f. How motives emerge from brain and hormonal systems (e. g. , hunger) True/False: Indicate whether the statement is true or false. 42. T FMotivation is a dynamic process—always changing, always rising and falling—rather than a discrete event or static condition. 43.

T FAccording to Herzberg, an employee’s motivation to work is best understood when the respective attitude of that employee is understood. 44. T FTransactional rewards focus on things like learning/development and the work environment, while relational rewards focus on things like pay and benefits. 45. T FAccording to Anastasopoulos, productivity can be equated with the number of hours spent working. 46. T FThe value of incentives can change across time. 47. T FIncentives push us to act. 48. T FPsychosocial factors cannot override biological factors of behavior. 9. T FIf you are extrinsically motivated, you are engaging in an activity to achieve some external reward. 50. T FWhittlesey believes that changing the behavior of employees is synonymous with motivating them. Exam Results [for instructor use]: ———————– Statement of Academic Integrity: By entering my name below, I certify that I have answered each of the questions on this exam independently and without the help of anyone else: Name:Leiandra Farrell Date: July 4, 2011 Points:0 (out of 25) Percentage:00% Exam Grade:X

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