Factors of obesity

Social, economic and environmental behaviors are the main contributing factors as to why our county is overweight. The purpose of this research proposal is to explore the factors of obesity. In order to complete this research, an explanatory research will be done. Varies of people who attend Cumberland County Health Department will participant in this survey. And it will take place at the Health Department in Cumberland County. Typical studies dealing with the factors of obesity has dealt with one or more of the following areas: 1). Environmental behavior factor, 2).

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Social behavior factor, 3). Economic behavior factor. By identifying the factors of obesity, professionals can better attempt to understand and respond to treating these individuals who are overweight. Chapter one: Problem: Obesity is the number one nutritional problem in the United States (“Weight and obesity,” 2003) and by some estimates has now surpassed cigarette smoking as the most preventable behavioral threat to good health. Obesity has become a serious issue and major health concern, not only in our community but also nationwide.

Studies have shown Cumberland County has ranked last in the state when it comes to practicing good health behaviors. Cumberland County ranks 18 out of 21 in clinical care usage to treat these behaviors (Cook Jar. , 2011). Social, economic and environmental behaviors are the main contributing factors as to why our country is overweight. Obesity is not simply a problem of overeating it can also be a problem associated with low self-esteem, as well as other psychological reasons that could include sexual abuse, alcoholism, or dysfunctional relationships with foods.

Some them in their everyday lives. Some may feel that eating relaxes feelings of not being accepted or embarrassment over one’s weight. In 2007 Cumberland county rank 31% in obesity; in 2008 record show that the white population dominated the numbers in obesity with 51. 2% (“Obesity rates and,”2012). African American obesity rate was at 35%, follow by Hispanic population with a percentage of 6. 7%; Asian rank the least with the smallest amount of 2%. The main stream cause of Cumberland counties obesity rate being the seemingly high number that it is seems to be fast food.

Studies show that the consumption rate of fast food is 28%. Currently the percentage of individuals being overweight in Cumberland County is 30% (“Obesity rates and,”2012). Goal: This research requires a multiple analysis approach that includes information on social, economic, and environmental factors that cause an individual to become obese. To begin this analysis an explanation research will be done to delve into the main objective of obesity and its relevance. A survey will be conducted with sample of individuals who appear to have this condition and resides in Cumberland County.

The literature suggests that Fayetteville, NC has a rate of 69. 4% of people that’s overweight or obese and has taken a huge leap in recent years. Individuals will omelet a survey instrument that ask a series of questions about problems they face as a result of being obese. Relevance: By identifying the problem of obesity, researchers can better assist with this major health problem by developing workable strategic plans of improvement. If accepted and followed correctly this plan can prevent problems in the future.

If researchers can implement this plan in the early stages of obesity then some of the major health issues will not become the number one nutritional issues. Once the problem of obesity is addressed then researchers can provide the proper service to those who separately seek help. Chapter Two: Background Literature Review: Standard studies dealing with obesity deliver unparalleled results when it comes to the factors of obesity such as: 1) Environmental 2) Social, and 3) Economic behavioral factors. An attempt was made and found that these three area above identified the relevant factors.

It also helped health care providers and educators understand the factors that contributed to obesity and developed strategies for prevention and Environmental Behavioral Factors: treatment. The environment in which we live in has a tremendous effect on our physical activity ND nutrition. Some people need to participate in lively pastimes; which include as; playing Video games, watching TV and movies; being inactive. In fact children spend more time in front of a television screen than they do in school or on playgrounds.

Most parent’s do not limit or discourage the constant use of televisions, computers and video games which promotes this sedentary lifestyle. This lifestyle is often a catalyst to individuals who are obese because it unmotivated them and keeps individuals at the stagnant state they are in. Also, the tradition and convince of eating fast food is increasing day by day. Some people are eating out at restaurants more than ever, so they have less control over how much fat, sugar and salt they are ingesting.

Most fast food restaurants also encourage super-sizing of menu items thus adding unnecessary cost and calories. In other state such as New York the mayor Michael Bloomberg tried to limit the sizes of sodas that are sold within the boundaries of New York city. He believed that citizens of New York City were drinking too much of the sugary drink known as soda. He said it was ideal to limit the amount of soda that one could consume and therefore to enforce a ban on soda that would top the selling of soda’s that are more than 16 ounces.

Groups like the Center for Science in the Public Interest (ASPI) said it’s about time someone addressed the ballooning portion size of sugary beverages. Michael Jacobson ( ASPI) founder and executive director believed container sizes have Jumped and the marketing of these drinks, especially to adolescents has exploded to more than $2 billion a year. The Bloomberg proposal has no precedent, this is the first time a United States city official has attempted to limit serving sizes and it’s impossible to predict whether it will help UT sugar and calorie consumption or make an impact on the percentage of obese New Yorkers.

Currently unhealthy foods and drinks continue to be advertised and sold to all adults and their children. So owners of fast food restaurants and Junk food providers continue advertisers purposely to target children who they know have increasing purchasing power. Social Behavioral Factors: It’s clear that interpersonal relationships and social learning play an important role in the subject of obesity. Micro-sociological causes include social eating, lack of group exercise, group transportation, and group popularization of sedentary recreation such as video games or TV.

The same principles of social learning can be turned around, however, to promote good health practices through group pressure to maintain an appealing body shape, nutritional social eating, athletic group activities and choosing active recreation. If an individual finds themselves in a health negative social network they should use themselves to change group behaviors or, if that fells then Join more positive setups such as athletic clubs and nutrition blobs, or finding a better health conscience meal buddy. On the Macro scale, our society uses pressure or us to conform and over shadows the decisions made in our instant social networks.

Some advertisements may not be meal intentioned as they pressure us to consume one product over another so the end effect is simply pressure to eat more. This researcher’s believe that today’s higher standard of living meaner that many households need two incomes to makes it. Most of us have access to public transportation and cars and do not walk to events as we once did. Long daily commutes to work and entertainment are trending towards those requiring sitting in front of wheel of car and or a computer screen for much of the day. Another factor is the world and has declined steadily since the 1950.

Much of the most readily available foods such as those found in vending machines, given out at social events and cafeterias, or found in the nearest and cheapest restaurants are the worst types of foods we can eat. Economic Behavioral Factors: Obesity is growing health concern for both developed and developing countries. World Health Organization (WHO) figures indicate that obesity is a “Global Epidemic”. Obesity is a severe condition of overweight. There are more than one billion overweight adults, and at least 300 million of these are clinically obese. Overweight affects more people than malnutrition and hunger (WHO 2004).

However, economists still know very little about its causes, consequences, and potential remedies. In particular, economists wonder why obesity is more prevalent in western industrialized countries, many other countries, and new transitional economies. From an economic point of view, the spreading of obesity leads to direct and indirect social costs to the economic system (Range 2007). The greater part of these (more of 60%) is due to increase drug expenses and hospital shelters, creating a notable increase in the burden of the national sanitary system. (Range 2007).

Besides direct costs, we can also consider indirect costs, less Job productively and consequent discrimination, greater frequency of disability pensions and higher insurance premiums (Range, 2007). Conclusion: In conclusion after conducting the review of the literature, it’s seems evident that are three behavioral factors of obesity are environmental behavioral factors, economic behavioral factors and social behavioral factors. When conducting this research experts can expects to find these three behavioral factors a major health concern leaning with obesity. It is more or less expected that environmental behavioral is the most common factor.

Environmental behavioral factor must be the major cause of modern obesity. Most people are affected by this because of sedentary and rush life styles. This life style plays a vital in role and coupled with cost driven advertisement that influences large numbers adults and their children. Chapter Three: Hypothesis/Key Concepts: The purpose of this research is to identify the factors of obesity as a major health concern. Social, economic and environmental are the three main factors that intricate into people becoming obese. Advertisements such as media commercial and social eating appeal to the nature that unhealthy is good.

The social behavior is a factor of conformational. When people feel comfortable they have no indiscretions there for eating with friends or family usually unhealthy food is accepted. People are not interested in walking because driving is often the easiest option. This habit not only harms the people but it takes its toll on environment by causing environmental of washers reduce the need for physical activity. The economic burden of obesity is animally substantial, calling for urgent preventive action from health insurers, businesses, government and other stakeholders (Ho, 2012). Research Design: This research will primary data collection.

The data for this study will be collected at Health Department in Cumberland County during spring of 2013. Variety of people can be selected to do the survey on obesity, mainly adults and children. This target area has been chosen simply because they are affected by obesity. The Health Department is located 1235 Ramsey street Fayetteville NC 28301, it provides an array of services to the citizens of the County. Its mission is to prevent illness and injury through clinical services; promote good health practices by educating the public; and keeping the environment clean, healthy and safe(“Fayetteville health dept. ” 2013). The participants will participate in the study will be selected by non-probability sampling method of snowballing. In order to contain the information, the researcher of this study will seek to receive permission from the Health Department to speak to the patients. Once this information is obtain, others participants can be allowed to volunteer. Because it’s known that all data collected may not be usable, a large umber of other volunteer can be contacted to make sure that there will be sufficient amount data.

Sources of Data: Once all the participants have been contacted, participants will be ask to attend a 30 minute workshop on obesity and at the end take a short survey. This survey will include questions such as “What are your daily activities”, “Do you eat in response to emotion”, “Are you currently on medication if yes list the medication you take”, “How frequently do you eat”. After the respondents had completed the survey, participants will hand in survey to qualified professional. The study will take place over a course of two weeks.

Method of Data Analysis: Data collectors will be volunteer/students from the Sociology department of Fayetteville State University (FSP) located in Fayetteville, NC. There will be a total of 10 interviews. These volunteer/students will complete a one day workshop which be held in the infirmary on FSP campus to be acquaint the interviewers with the survey, as well as the research objective. To organize and analyze the data collected, the program Enter closed-ended survey responses into a program like Excel, Access, SPAS, or AS, which can perform tactical analyses and create tables and graphs.

Often, you can import data from electronic surveys directly into the analysis software. Code the data by assigning a number for each response and create a key explaining the coding for each question. (“lard: Evaluate programs,” 2013). The purpose of this study a frequency distribution will be used to identify how many of the patients fit into varies categories of obesity. A line chart will also be Informed Consent: The Factors of Obesity: A study of Cumberland County Read this consent form carefully and ask as many questions as you like before you ecocide whether you want to participate in this research study.

You are free to ask questions at any time before, during, or after your participation in this research. Project Information: Project Title: The Factors of Obesity Organization: Fayetteville State University Location: Cumberland County Public Health Department Phone Number: 1. PURPOSE OF THIS RESEARCH STUDY The purpose of this research is to explore the nature and extent of factors of obesity. In order complete this research, explanation research study will be done. Surveys will be conducted with patients at Cumberland County Public Health Department. 1.

CONFIDENTIALITY Your identity in this study will be treated as confidential. The results of the study may be published for scientific purposes but will not give your name or include any identifiable references to you. However, any records or data obtained as a result of your participation in this study may be inspected by the sponsor, by any relevant governmental agency, or by the persons conducting this study, provided that such inspectors are legally obligated to protect any identifiable information from public disclosure, except where disclosure is otherwise required by law or a court of competent Jurisdiction.

These records will be kept private in so far as permitted by law. 2. TERMINATION OF RESEARCH STUDY You are free to choose whether or not to participants in this study. There will be no penalty or loss of benefits to which you are otherwise entitled if you choose not to the course of this study that may relate to or influence your willingness to continue participation. In the event you decide to discontinue your participation in the study. In addition, your participation in the study may be terminated by the investigator without your consent under the following circumstances.

It may be necessary for the sponsor of the study to terminate the study without prior notice to, or consent of, the participants in the event that/ 3. AUTHORIZATION I have read and understand this consent form, and I volunteer to participate in this research study. I understand that I will receive a copy of this form. I voluntarily choose to participants, but I understand that my consent does not take away any legal rights in the case of negligence or other legal fault of anyone who is involved in this study.

I further understand that nothing in this consent form is intended to place any applicable Federal, State, or local laws. Participants Name: Participants Signature: Investigator Signature: Date: The Factors odd Obesity: A Study of Cumberland County SURVEY: Background Information: Name: Age: Sex: What your Family medical history? What your daily Actives? Please answer the following questions about your daily activities. Work out? You eat? C. What types of food do D. How many times a day do you eat? Below is a list of problems and concerns that a patients by have when they visit the Health Department when concern about obesity.

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