Examples: biological agents (bacteria, virus), chemical agents (pesticides), stress, and lifestyles b. Iii. 3. Exposure: contact with a disease causing factor, the amount of the factor that impinges upon a group or individuals b. Iii. 3. A. Examples: contaminated food, air pollution, radiation b. . Outcome b. Iv. L . All possible results to causal factor from an exposure b. Iv. L . A. Examples: infectious disease, disabling conditions, injuries, chronic diseases, personal behavior, and lifestyle, or health conditions b. Iv. 2. Morbidity: illness due Tao specific disease or health condition b. Iv. 3. Mortality: cause of death b. V. Quantification b. V. L . Statistical measurement to describe the occurrence of health outcomes and exposures b. V. 2. Descriptive epidemiology: concerned with characterizing the amount and distribution of health and disease within a population c.
Control of Health Problems c. I. A natural history of disease, course of disease from beginning to end c. Ii. Pre- pathogenesis: before disease interacts with host c. Iv. Prevention c. Iv. L . Primary: targets pre-pathogenesis, before disease can occur c. Iv. L . A. Methods: education programs, immunization, creation of a health environment c. Iv. 2. Secondary: early phases of pathogenesis, activities that limit the progression of disease c. Iv. 2. A. Methods: programs for cancer screening and early detection of other chronic diseases c. Iv. 3.
Tertiary: late phases of pathogenesis c. Iv. 3. A. Methods: programs to restore optimal functioning, physical therapy, and fitness programs 5. Biomedical science: relies on scientific methodology and high level technical skills a. Interdisciplinary Science: information from many fields, such as mathematics, biostatistics, history, sociology, demography, geography, behavioral science, and law b. Scientific method: theory, hypothesis, data b. I. Cross sectional: designed to estimate the prevalence of disease or exposure and a type of descriptive epidemiology b. Ii.
Ecologic comparison study: correlation between exposure rate and disease rate among different groups or populations over he same time period b. Iii. Case control: compares individuals who have disease with individuals who do not have the disease in order to examine differences in exposure or risk factors for the disease b. Iv. Cohort: individuals who share an exposure in common and who are followed over time c. Critical Thinking c. I. Analogy, deductive reasoning, solving problems c. Ii. Descriptive information on occurrence of disease in order to develop a hypothesis d. Quantitative and Computer Methods d. I.
Biostatistics, computer to store, retrieve, process health related information e. Communication skills e. I. Control disease, improve health of the community, evaluate intervention programs, and inform the public f. Inculcation of Aesthetic Values: epidemiological writings 6. Observational science: no manipulation or random assignment of subject, measurements of patterns of exposure and disease in a population in order to draw inferences about the distribution and etiology (cause) of disease 7. Descriptive Epidemiology: concerned with characterizing the amount and distribution of health and disease within a population a.
Health outcomes: person, place, time, sex, age, ace, ethnicity, countries, localized pattern of disease, day, week, month, year b. Develop hypothesis c. Set up research 8. Analytical Epidemiology: examines causal hypothesis regarding the association between exposures and health conditions, natural history take advantage of naturally occurring events 9. Natural Experiment: naturally occurring circumstances in which subsets of the population have different levels of exposures to a supposed causal factor in a situation resembling an actual experiment where human subjects would be randomly allocated to groups 10.
History a. The period of Classical Antiquity: Before 500 A. D. A. I. Hippocrates 460 B. C. To 370 B. C. , did not use superstitious reasons for disease, suggested environmental factors, such as water and air quality, for cause of disease b. Middle Ages 500-1450 b. I. Black Death 1346-1352 in Europe, claimed 20-30 million lives b. Ii. Bubonic plague: fever, black splotches on skin, flea bites from rats and rodents c. Renaissance 1200-1699 c. I. Parcels 1493-1541, found toxicology (chemicals found in environment) and dose response: observations of effect of toxin is related to dose strength and organ response c. Ii.