Effects of Organic and Synthetic Fertilizers on Okra Plant (Abelmoschus Esculentus)

ABSTRACT This investigatory project was conducted to test the effectivity of organic and synthetic fertilizers when apply on okra plant. It also aims to test whether, which is better to use between the two fertilizers. In order to conduct the study, we have used okra seeds, polyethylene bag, and dried leaves as organic fertilizer, synthetic fertilizer, synthetic fertilizer, and natural soil. We have planted each polyethylene bag with 3 seeds of okra, labeled it as Setup A (Organic fertilizer), Setup B (Synthetic Fertilizer), And Setup C (Control Experiment).

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Then, we observed the changes in the plant for 3 weeks. After several weeks, we observed some changes in the plant like the increasing number of its height and leaves. We therefore conclude, that the synthetic fertilizer is better to use than organic fertilizer because it provides faster growth of the plant. But, it is very expensive. Some farmers, especially the poor ones and suffering from financial problems cannot afford this kind of fertilizer. It is also dangerous and harmful to the health of the farmers because of its chemical content.

TABLE OF CONTENTS ChapterPage I. INTRODUCTION…………………………………………………………….. A. Background of the Study…………………………………………………. B. Statement of the Problems and Objectives……………………………….. C. Significance of the Study…………………………………………………. D. Scope and Limitations……………………………………………………. E. Definition of Terms………………………………………………………. F. Review of Related Literature and Studies………………………………… II. METHODOLOGY………………………………………………………………….. A. Materials and Equipment…………………………………………………. B. Treatment and General Procedure………………………………………… B1.

Soil Analysis and Preparation………………………………………… B2. Preparation of the Garden Site………………………………………… B3. Planting and Application of the Fertilizers…………………………… III. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION…………………………………………… A. Findings…………………………………………………………………… B. Analysis Of Data………………………………………………………….. IV. CONCLUSIONS……………………………………………………………. A. Summary………………………………………………………………….. B. Conclusion………………………………………………………………… C. Recommendations………………………………………………………… V. BIBLIOGRAPHY…………………………………………………………… VI. APPENDICES……………………………………………………………… Chapter I INTRODUCTION

A. Background of the Study With the high demand of vegetables as substitute for meat and poultry products because of its very expensive and increasing price and because of the poor economy of our country, cheap vegetables are needed. Cheap but with high-nutrient-content vegetables are also needed as a source of income. Ladies fingers, Abelmoschus esculentus, and locally known as okra plant is one of the cheapest but with high nutrient content vegetable in our country. It can grow easily and has a long life span. It can live for months.

You can plant it in your backyard and harvest it in a shorter possible time compared to other vegetables. In planting okra plant, a farmer would need fertilizer to make the plant healthier and grow faster. There are two types of fertilizer: the organic fertilizers and the synthetic/inorganic fertilizers. The organic fertilizers originate in plants, animals, or minerals and include compost, seaweed and ground bone. The synthetic/inorganic fertilizers are concentrated salt or minerals; some of which are produced as by-products of petroleum production. B. Statement of the Problem and Objectives

The investigatory project was conducted to the test the effectivity of organic and synthetic fertilizers when applied to okra plant (Abelmuschus esculentus). As what we have also observed, farmers were confused whether what is better and effective to use between organic and synthetic fertilizers. The effectivity of the fertilizers include the: how healthy the vegetables are and how fast do these vegetables grow. Generally, the reason why we conducted this study is to know and discover what is better to use: the organic or the synthetic fertilizer? The study also aims: )To know the effects of applying organic fertilizer on okra plant (Abelmuschus esculentus) 2)To know the possible effects of synthetic fertilizer if used in okra plant (Abelmuschus esculentus) 3)To gain knowledge on how both the fertilizers are applied on okra plant (Abelmuschus esculentus) 4)To know which is a save-of-money to use between the fertilizers HYPOTHESIS 1) Ha- Positive effects of applying organic fertilizer on okra plant a)No side effects on plants. b)Does not contain chemicals, which will affect the growth of plants. Ho- Negative effects of organic fertilizers when applied on okra plant a)Slower time of growth. )Requires a longer period of time before one can apply it on plant. 2) Ha- Easier growth of plants Ho- Contains chemicals which can affect the plant’s growth 3) Ha- In applying organic fertilizer, you can save time and effort. Ho- Synthetic fertilizers are tiring to use because you need to be careful in applying it on plants. 4) Ha- Organic fertilizers don’t require a big amount of money. Ho- Big amount of money is expected to be involved in using synthetic fertilizer C. Significance of the Study The investigatory project was conducted to help the farmers in deciding whether what kind of fertilizer is best to use.

It also provides informations about the effects of both organic and synthetic fertilizer on okra plant. This study enables the students to gain more knowledge on how are fertilizers are applied on plants. It also tests and develops the talents and potentials of each student who conducted the study especially in coping with the problems that have been encountered while performing the experiment. The study also develops the leadership ability of the leaders in each group. D. Scope and Limitations This investigatory project was performed for 1 ? months or 6 weeks.

The 3 weeks were allotted for the planting and growth of the okra seeds while the other 3 weeks were for the observation process. The researchers had really exerted efforts and hardwork for the success of the study. Everyone has tasks and responsibility. The resources were easy to locate in the community. So, no great expenses is needed in conducting study. E. Definition of Terms 1)Fertilizer- a natural or synthetic chemical substance or mixture used to enrich soil so as to promote the growth of the plant. 2)Organic Fertilizer- a type of fertilizer that comes from decaying matter or manure. )Synthetic Fertilizer- a type of fertilizer that comes from chemicals as substitute for organic fertilizer. 4)Chemicals- of or pertaining to chemistry or its phenomena. 5)Wilting- the process of loosing freshness of plants. F. Review of Related Literature and Studies 1. In the study conducted by the II-Fontaine students last school year 2006-2007, they found out that the synthetic fertilizer is better to use than organic fertilizer in terms of fast growth of the plant applied with the said fertilizer. 2. One scenario of global fertilizer use covering the period 1990-2100 has been published by Pepper et al. 1992). This scenario was based on the growth in GDP, assuming that higher incomes will drive the fertilizer use upwards. The scenario was later used by Alcamo (1994). Contrary to Alcamo (1994), in the projections of Alexandratos (1995) the use of fertilizers is driven by crop production, and fertilizer use is estimated with crop- and land-class-specific fertilizer response curves. As discussed in Chapter 2, the method applied by Alexandratos (1995) to derive projections of fertilizer use is not appropriate for the level of aggregation in this study.

Extensive literature studies exist on the subject of plant nutrition, fertilizer-yield relations, and economics of fertilizer use. It is yet very difficult to derive yield response curves for countries or regions. The major reason is that the use of nutrients is not uniform. In particular in developing countries only a minor group of farmers use synthetic fertilizers, while the majority produces at a subsistence level based on crop rotation, recycling of crop residues, organic wastes and animal excreta.

Correlation of statistical data of country or regional averaged fertilizer application rates with the average crop yields is therefore not appropriate, although there have been some attempts at it (IFDC, 1992). Another reason why response functions cannot be used for long-term scenarios is the uncertainty about nutrient requirements to sustain future high-yield crops. 3. At Plains in 1997, the 10–34–0 and 10–34–0 + 32–0–0 starter fertilizers significantly increased yields over the control. Gascho et al. (1997) Indicated that Greenville soils have a high P fixation capacity.

Therefore, the Greenville soil at Plains may respond more favorably to P-containing starter fertilizers. In addition, the period of cool weather immediately after planting at Plains in 1997 may have depressed soil P mineralization, which could have also resulted in the favorable response from P-containing starter fertilizers. The starter fertilizer that resulted in the greatest yields at Midville in 1997 was 28–0–0–5(S). The University of Georgia Extension Service recommends 11 kg ha-1 of S for cotton production on Coastal Plain soils (Brown et al. , 1997).

Thus, starter fertilizers may be an efficient method of S application on these soils. These results indicate the most appropriate cotton starter fertilizer may depend on soil type and weather conditions at planting and stand establishment. Significant yield differences due to the application of starter fertilizers occurred only at Midville and Plains in 1997. Also, significant differences in fiber properties occurred only at Plains in 1998. Economic analyses were conducted across all years and locations, and caution should be observed in interpreting these results.

Although most yield differences were statistically insignificant, it is worth noting that net returns were higher than in the untreated check in 23 of the 30 comparisons (5 treatments x 2 yr x 3 locations = 30 comparisons). The cost of employing starter fertilizer as a cultural practice is not prohibitive. The cost of the starter fertilizer materials used in this study ranged from $17 to $40 ha-1. The investment in additional equipment needed is relatively minor ($2030 in the example assumed in this study); therefore, economies of scale or the lack thereof should not be a constraint (annual costs were only $2. 2 ha-1 for 162 ha). This study was not designed to determine if starter fertilizers ameliorate the effects of cool weather during germination and stand establishment. However, it is interesting to note that the only significant yield increases that occurred in this study were when the crop was exposed to cool weather for an extended period of time immediately after planting. Additional research is needed to properly address this question. Chapter II METHODOLOGY A. Materials and Equipment The following were materials used in conducting the experiment: •Polyethylene bag size 7 x 7 x 7 Knife /bolo •Rake •Broom •Okra seeds •Dried leaves •Any brand of synthetic fertilizer •Natural soil •Small hoe B. Treatment and General Procedure 1. Soil Analyses and Preparation The soil to be used must be examined first and must be prepared to avoid errors in the study. The soil used was free from stones, weeds and other unnecessary materials. The soil was placed in the polyethylene bags with the same weight of the soil in each bag. 2. Preparation of the Garden Site The site of our investigatory project was at Vicaldo’s residence, specifically, in their backyard.

The site was cleaned first and the researchers made 3 columns of polyethylene bags with 5 rows. The columns were labeled as Setup A (organic fertilizer), Setup B (synthetic fertilizer), and Setup C (control experiment). 3. Planting and Application Each polyethylene bag was planted with 3 seeds. This is to ensure the growth of any of the seeds and to avoid duplication of the experiment. As the seeds grow, it was measured weekly to know if the vegetable is ready for the application of fertilizers. The fertilizers were applied on okra plant (Abelmuschus esculentus) as it reaches the height of 1. 5 cm. Chapter III RESULTS AND DISCUSSION A. Findings Table 1. ORGANIC FERTILIZER (dried leaves) Number of weekHeight of Okra PlantNumber of Leaves 118 cm. 4 220. 5 cm. 4 329 cm5 The table above shows how the height and the number of leaves of okra plant increases every week after the dried leaves were applied on okra plant as fertilizer. Table 2. SYNTHETIC FERTILIZER Number of weekHeight of OkraNumber of leaves 118 cm. 4 221 cm4 329. 5 cm5 The tabulated data above depicts the increasing number of height and leaves of okra plant every week using synthetic fertilizer. Table 3. CONTROL SETUP

Number of weekHeight of Okra PlantNumber of leaves 117. 5 cm. 4 218 cm. 4 324 cm. 5 The data in tabular form above shows the improvement of okra plant in its height and number of leaves without any fertilizer. B. Analysis of Data Legend: Organic fertilizer Synthetic fertilizer Control Experiment The graph above shows the relationship between the heights of the okra plant per week. As can you see above, it is a graph showing the relationship between the increasing numbers of the leaves per week. Chapter IV SUMMARY, CONCLUSION, AND RECOMMENDATION A. Summary The investigatory project was performed for 1 ? months or 6 weeks.

The 3 weeks were allotted for the planting and growth of the okra seeds while the other three weeks were for the observation process. The researchers used dried leaves as the organic fertilizers while UREA was used as synthetic fertilizers. The researcher found out it is effective to use synthetic fertilizers for it contains chemicals that speed-up the growth of plant, but there are also side effects like withering of leaves due to excessive used of synthetic fertilizers. Researchers also found out that in planting, we need to exert more effort in caring of the plant to prevent from the accumulation of pests and worms.

B. Conclusion The investigatory project revealed that synthetic fertilizer is better to use than organic fertilizer because of its ability to make the growth of plants faster. The researchers also found out that big amount of money is involved in using synthetic fertilizer, and it is dangerous and harmful for our health because it contains chemicals or toxins, which can affect our body. The researchers concluded that organic fertilizer is safe to use because there’s no chemicals mixed on it. It is also a save-of-money to use because you can find the resources need in conducting the experiment in the community.

The researcher also found out that a longer period of time is needed in using the organic fertilizer for the preparation process of the fertilizer. The researchers have discovered that okra plant is a type of plant that has a strong resistance against virus, fungi and other kinds of micro-organisms which affect-plant growth. C. Recommendation The researchers recommend to perform the experiment for longer period of time in order to gain clearer and move accurate data with regards to the changes happened in plants after applying the fertilizers on it.

Students or other persons who want to conduct our experiments for further observations and other objectives can use different types of organic fertilizers like guano, chicken manure, and pig manure as substitutes for dried leaves as organic fertilizer. The setups must also be placed in a partly shaded area to prevent the plants from wilting. The researchers also recommend visiting the setups every 3 days to observe the changes happened on plants after organic and synthetic fertilizers were applied clearly and more accurately.

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