Dolphins in Patagonia

Only then can the Amerada crew work on capturing great shots of the dolphins up close to be inserted and edited in their latest documentary on dolphins. But alas, Sam was unfortunate as his first try did not turn out well. Even though the duo had shifted their positions from being on a sailboat to try to spot the dolphins from high lands, it was still quite a frustration for Sam as they found nothing. According to Mark, that day was practically unlucky as the seas were choppy and rough when dolphin-searching actually requires a sunny day with calm and flat waters as so to not confuse the dolphins with the rough waves of the waters.

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Honestly, this shows that the number of dolphins are rapidly decreasing over time because it is quite impossible to not spot at least one dolphin if they were in big numbers. How is that possible to be known by humans? With the latest research and developments, scientists came up with the quadrate sampling and capture-recapture methods. However, based on my understandings, I believe that the capture-recapture method is the best way for scientists to determine the overall population of an organism or dolphins in this case that inhibits a particular ecosystem.

This is because as dolphins are mobile returns, the quadrate sampling technique would be inappropriate. The capture- recapture method is done by capturing some member of the dolphin population by traps and any ecologists or marine biologists will mark the animals with distinctive features like tags or colorful dye that are waterproof before releasing them back to their habitat. The number of dolphins caught and marked will be recorded to enable calculation and comparison with the number of marked dolphins recaptured after a certain period of time to assume the approximate figures of dolphins that existed in the ecosystem.

In addition, I believed that perhaps the other reason why Sam Wiggled could not manage to discover any dolphins was because of, through the findings that Eve made through the Internet, I have managed to find an interesting paper entitled “Orison’s Dolphin Conservation Plan for waters west of the I-J” by two principal authors, Joe Harm and Make Simmons of the WADS, Whales and Dolphins Conservation Society in the United Kingdom. There were many factors that contribute to the decline of the dolphins.

Based on that paper, I found out that apart of the threats have been identified on a local level of the Wales that include disturbance, illusion from various sources such as sewage and oil industries and depletion of food sources. Anthropogenic is defined as of, relating to, or resulting from the influence of human beings on nature. Recreational crafts that has been increasing in the Welsh water also holds the potential of causing dolphins being entangled in fishing gear, acoustic disturbance to cetaceans and physical damage of the cetaceans through collisions with vessels or propellers.

All of these may result in cetaceans being displaced from favored areas, thus disabling Sam and Mark to find their dolphins. Back to our film review, when everything seemed to be going down the drain in the Wales, Mark surprised Sam with a trip to Golf Novo in Patagonia. This meaner that Sam would be flying all the way to Argentina in order to continue his search of dolphins. Why Golf Novo? Well, it is because Golf Novo is the home to many species of marine life such as the Southern right whales, Dusky dolphins that Sam would be eager to see and many more.

Upon arriving in Argentina, Sam was brought sightseeing around the country by his sponsors before starting work. Only then was he introduced to a local lady researcher who he would be aiding out. To find the dolphins, a particular useful tip provided by Cam’s partner was to search for a bait ball. A bait ball is actually a tightly packed spherical formation of many small fish like sardines and anchovies that swims together in different directions to confuse their predators. A bait ball can be 12-15 meters in diameter and extend to a depth of 10 meters.

Although the formation of a bait ball acts as a defense mechanism of the small fish, predators such as sharks and dolphins tend to be attracted by the striking property of the bait balls. An example off bait ball being attacked… With a shooting crew always on the go, looking out for any signs of dolphins while sailing across the Golf Novo waters, Sam Wiggled and his Spanish partner were situated on the cliffs of the coastal shore, also watching out for dolphins through their binoculars. As time passes by, both sides did not manage to find any bait balls or dolphins.

Although Sam thought he did spotted something at first, his hopes were crashed went the shooting crew who were informed via the walking-talkie found nothing when they dived underneath the Argentinean waters. All they saw was an adult whale swimming majestically. Then, the crew members decided to assign Sam watching out for dolphins on their sailboats. Nevertheless, no dolphins were found but at least, great shots of a mother whale and her calves were taken under the sea. After a long time sailing on waters, a devastated Sam finally landed on the sea shore.

Although it was frustrating that he did not managed to find any dolphins, it was altogether an exciting experience. After much discussion, the crew director decided on the last resort of sending Sam on a helicopter to experience the bird’s eye view of the Golf Novo. Sam was intrigued with the vast view of the scorers although the mime he spent up there yielded no results. However, back at the sea, the enthusiastic unfortunately there was no bait ball nearby. A while later, the crew members discovered a bait ball with Southern Right whales, sea lions and seagulls attacking them.

It was a fantastic scene and they did manage to capture it on camera even though the hopeful sight of the dolphins was not available. In the end, when Sam landed down safely, the crew director reported about their discoveries to him. They finally concluded that they will use their beautiful shots of the marine life for other documentaries even though the dolphin shot was nowhere to be found. As time was running out, Sam Wiggled soon had to fly back to his home and leaving with him all the sweet memories he had all this while.

Though he was a bit down hearted, it was an educational experience for him that he would impossibly forget throughout his lifetime. Question 2 – Food Web Based on the video that was shown in class, one food web that I can outline from the marine ecosystem is of the below. ALGAE SEAGULLS SEA LIONS ANCHOVIES DUSKY DOLPHINS SOUTHERN-RIGHT WHALES MAGELLAN PENGUINS In the video, there wasn’t actually any algae shown eaten by anchovies but in a food web, it is necessary to start off with a producer. Question 3 – EFFECTS OF…

GLOBAL WARMING In a nutshell, the deteriorating number of dolphins might be the effects of global warming, deforestation and pollutions in the marine ecosystem. But how can a global warming for instance affect the sea creatures? First of all, it would be wise to know what is actually global warming about. Global warming is the increase of the earth’s atmospheric temperature that causes corresponding changes in climate and environments. As greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide and methane are released into the atmosphere which is a shield that forms around our Earth.

However, those gases that were released are then causing heat to be trapped inside of our planet and therefore creating a general warming effect. Scorers are one of the most influenced territories of warming. This is because rising air temperatures affect the physical nature of our scorers and their inhabitants. As air temperature rises, water becomes less dense and thus separates from the nutrient-filled cold layer below. This is the main basis for a chain effect or chain reaction that will impact all marine life who feeds on these nutrients for survival.

There are two general physical effects of ocean warming on marine populations which are 1) Changes in natural 2) Changing ocean chemistry/acidification CHANGES IN NATURAL HABITATS AND FOOD SUPPLY In every ecosystem, a producer is important because all living creatures depend on it as the primary source of food. These producers play a very important role in all the food webs that ever existed on Earth. Producers are usually plants, may it be on land or in sea despite of any sizes that undergo photosynthesis.

Photosynthesis is vital because it is the process of removing carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and inverting it into oxygen and organic carbon which feeds almost every ecosystem. Phytoplankton’s are one-celled plants that live at the ocean surface and algae also use photosynthesis for nutrient fulfillment. In fact, according to a recent NASA study, phytoplankton is more likely to thrive in cooler scorers. Similarly, algae, a plant that produces food for other marine life is disappearing due to ocean warming.

We learnt just now that when air temperature rises, it causes the water to be heated and becomes less dense, thus separating it from the nutrient-filled cold layer below. So, since scorers are warming up, nutrients are blocked from traveling upwards to these producers that are limited to a small surface layer and therefore cannot supplement marine life with necessary oxygen and organic carbon. In a nutshell, phytoplankton and algae are extremely important organisms as they generate roughly half of all organic matter on planet Earth and produce half the world’s oxygen.

Here, I would like to quote Daniel Boyce, co-author of phytoplankton report and marine ecology PhD student at Dalhousie University in Halifax, Nova Scotia in one of his paper reservation on the effects of global warming on marine life mentioning this. “Phytoplankton’s are basically like microscopic little plants. They are like grass or trees that you can see on land, they require sunlight and nutrients in order to grow. For phytoplankton in much of the ocean, the nutrients are delivered to them from deeper ocean waters by the mixing and currents and turbulence.

And so what happens is as the ocean continues to warm the ocean becomes more stratified and more stable which limits the amount of mixing and limits the growth of nutrients delivered to phytoplankton at the surface and negatively affects their growth. I hope, based on the above explanation by Daniel Boyce, you would be able to understand how global warming affects the number of phytoplankton and algae in the scorers Just like I did. For me, it was a bit difficult to understand how the whole mechanism works when affected by global warming at first, but once I came across this, everything became clear as the sky to me.

Hope you will too: O YEARLY GROWTH CYCLES Different ecosystems on Earth are made out biotic and biotic components. In the marine life, various plants and animals in our scorers need both a suitable temperature and light balance in order to survive. Temperature-driven creatures such as the Phytoplankton, have started their yearly growth cycle earlier in the season due to warming scorers. What is yearly growth cycle? Well, all plants have their own growth cycles which is the time a plant completes its life cycle.

During this period, they grow, mature, bloom, produce seeds and die. There are three types of plants’ growth cycles which is the yearly growth cycle, biennial and perennial. The biennial growth cycle requires all or part of 2 years to complete its life cycle. Categories, the herbaceous perennials and woody perennials. Algae are plants that eve yearly growth cycles which complete its life cycle in a year. Light-driven creatures on the other hand, also start their yearly growth cycle around the same time as temperature-driven creatures.

Since Phytoplankton is blooming in earlier seasons, the entire food chain is affected. Animals that once swam to the surface for food are now finding an area missing of nutrients and light-driven creatures are starting their growth at different times. This creates a non-synchronous natural environment. Now, I am sure you are wondering how can early annual growth cycles of any organism affect the food chain of an ecosystem. Thus, I will provide a few examples that I hope might give you a clear view of the effects of changes in the timing of seasonal life-cycle events.

Even though these examples are of the Animals kingdom, it works similarly for plants too. Warmer springs have led to earlier nesting for 8 migratory bird species on the East Coast of the United States. North eastern birds that spent their winter in the southern United States are returning north in the spring 13 days earlier than they did in the early 20th century. In a California study, 16 out of 23 butterfly species shifted their migration timing and arrived earlier. Changes like these can lead to mismatch in the timing of migration, breeding and food availability.

Growth and survival are declined when migrants arrive at a location before r after food sources are present. MIGRATION The warming of scorers may also lead to migration of organisms along the east and west coasts. Heat-tolerant species such as shrimp will expand northward, while heat- intolerant species such as clams and flounder will retreat from north. This migration will lead to a new mix of organisms in an entirely new environment, causing changes in predatory habits. If some organisms cannot adapt to their new marine environment, they will not flourish and die off.

CHANGING OCEAN CHEMISTRY/ ACIDIFICATION General Acidification As carbon dioxide is being released into the ocean, the chemical contents in the ocean drastically changes. Greater CO concentrations that are released into our scorers create high ocean acidity. When the ocean gets intensely acidified, the number of Phytoplankton decreases. This results in less ocean plants able to uptake greenhouse gases. Increased ocean acidity also threatens marine life such as corals and shellfish which may become extinct later this century. ACIDIFICATION EFFECT ON CORAL REEFS

Coral, one of the leading sources for the ocean’s food and livelihood is also changing with the onset of global warming. Global warming can cause the coral reefs to be destroyed, together with all the species of organisms that resides in there. Naturally, coral secretes tiny shells of calcium carbonate in order to form its skeleton. As the released amount of carbon dioxide increases, acidification increases too and the carbonate ions will eventually vanish. This results in lower extension rates or weaker skeletons in most corals.

CORAL BLEACHING Coral bleaching is the breakdown in the symbiotic relationship between coral and algae, is also occurring within warmer ocean temperatures. Since algae gives coral its of this algae from its bindings with the corals. Now, this will certainly lead to a lighter appearance. When this relationship that is so important for the marine ecosystem to survive disappears, corals begin to weaken. Consequently, coral bleaching is inter- related with the acidification effect on coral reefs because as we know, food and habitats for a great number of marine life are also destroyed.

CONCLUSION ON THE EFFECTS OF GLOBAL WARMING TOWARDS OCEAN LIFE Based on what I have read through various articles that I have found in the Internet, I am ere the warming of our scorers and its effect on marine life will have a direct impact on us, humankind. According to the World Wildlife Fund (WFM), a slight increase of two degrees Celsius would destroy almost all existing coral reefs. Additionally, ocean circulation changes due to warming would have disastrous effects on marine fisheries. This drastic impact is often hard to imagine. It can only be related too similar historical event.

Fifty-five million years ago, ocean acidification led to a mass extinction of ocean creatures. According to scientists’ fossil record, it took more than 100,000 years for the scorers to recover. Eliminating the use of greenhouse gases and protecting our scorers may reduce the possibility of this from reoccurring. POLLUTION Over 80% of marine pollution comes from land-based activities. From plastic bags to pesticides – most of the waste that humans produce on land eventually reaches the scorers, either through deliberate dumping or from run-off through drains and rivers.

It is like all types of pollution that ever existed on Earth will combine at this stage. For example, flows of excess chemical fertilizers to the scorers are part of soil pollution and liberate dumping in rivers are of water pollution that causes dirty waters. Okay, to proceed, pollutions caused by humans include: Oil Oil spills cause terrible damage to the marine environment but in fact are only responsible for only around 12% of the oil entering the seas each year. According to a study by the US National Research Council, 36% of oil comes down the drains and rivers as waste and runoff from cities and industry.

Oil spills can cause many harm to mane life such as: FOULING OF HABITAT Oil spills can effect ocean habitat, both offshore and onshore. Before an oil spill reaches shore, the oil can poison algae and phytoplankton that are essential to all EAI organisms. On shore, oil can cover rocks and marine invertebrates. Even though the oil spill can be cleaned up, oil that has seeped into the ground can hurt marine life for ages. For example, oil can drip into the ground, causing issues for animals that burrow in grounds like crabs.

DECREASED REPRODUCTION Oil spills can affect the eggs of marine life such as fish and sea turtles when the spill occurs and also in long-term effect. Oil can also cause disruption of reproductive hormones and behavioral changes that lead to declining reproduction rates or affect the care of young. POISONING AND INTERNAL DAMAGE Animals can be poisoned or suffer internal damage from digesting oil. Effects include ulcers and damage to red blood cells, kidneys, liver and to immune system. It has been discovered that oil vapors can cause injury to eyes and lungs.

In fact, it can be are evaporating. If vapors are severe enough, marine mammals may become “sleepy’ and drown. Oil can also cause effects ‘up’ the food chain, such as when an organism at the highest atrophic level of a food chain eat a number of oil-infected animals. For example, after the Exxon Valued spill in Alaska, the reproduction in bald eagles had decreased after the eagles ate animals infected by the oil. Fertilizers Fertilizer runoff from farms and lawns is a huge problem for coastal areas because the extra nutrients causes transportation. Well, what is transportation exactly?

Transportation is the flourishing of algal bloom when an increase in nutrients such as nitrogen and phosphorus contained in fertilizer runoff increases algal growth. This phenomenon deplete the water’s dissolved oxygen and suffocate other marine life. These blooms also compete with coral growth which can inhibit the biodiversity of he coral reefs. In the end, the coral reefs might vanish and all marine life will lose their source of food. Transportation has created enormous dead zones in several parts of the world, including the Gulf of Mexico and the Baltic Sea.

Seas of Garbage Solid garbage also makes its way to the ocean. Plastic bags, balloons, glass bottles, shoes, packaging materials and almost everything that we throw away can reach the sea if not disposed of properly. Plastic garbage which decomposes very slowly is often mistaken for food by marine animals. Many plastic materials, usually plastic gas in particular have been found blocking the breathing passages and stomachs of many marine animals, including turtles, whales and dolphins. This garbage can also come back to shore, where it pollutes beaches and other coastal habitats.

Toxic Chemicals Almost all marine creatures, from the tiniest plankton to dolphins and polar bears, is contaminated with man-made chemicals such as pesticides and chemicals used in common consumer products. Some of these chemicals enter the sea through deliberate dumping. For ages, the scorers have been a convenient dumping ground for waste generated on land. This persisted until the sass, with dumping at sea became the accepted practice for disposal on nearly everything, including toxic material such as pesticides, chemical weapons and radioactive waste. Chemicals also enter the sea from land-based activities.

Chemicals can escape into water, soil and air during their manufacture, use or disposal as well as from accidental leaks or fires in products containing these chemicals. Once in the environment, these chemicals San actually travel for long distances in air and water, including ocean currents. People once take for granted that the ocean was so vast that all the Laotians would eventually be diluted and dispersed to safe levels. But in reality, chemicals have even become more concentrated as they have entered the food chain. Now, how can it affect the food chains of the marine life?

Well, tiny animals at the bottom of the food chain such as algae and phytoplankton in the scorers absorb the chemicals they feed. Because they do not break down easily, the chemicals accumulate in these organisms became more concentrated in their bodies than in the surrounding water or soil. These creatures are eaten by small animals and the concentration rises again. These animals in turn, are eaten by small animals which can travel large distances with their even further increased chemical load. Animals higher up the food chain, such as seals can have contamination levels millions of times higher than the water in which they reside in.

And polar bears which feed on seals can have contamination levels up to 3 billion times higher than their environment. In fact, people can even become contaminated either directly from household products or by eating contaminated seafood and animal fats. It is showing that a number of man-made chemicals can cause serious health hazards including anger, damage to the immune system, behavioral problems and reduced fertility. DEFORESTATION It is vital to always bear in mind that the world’s many ecosystems are interconnected and what happens in one area can affect the lives of those living hundreds of miles away.

One example of this symbiosis is how deforestation affects the ocean. The cutting down of trees massively has an impact on the ocean, marine life and people living on the coasts. Ocean Problems often Start with Runoff Logging often leads to more runoff which is more water will be flowing from the land into the ocean. Having trees help reduce runoff because the roots of the plants soak up rain and help the soil to stay in place. Without forests, rainwater will carry soil off into rivers which eventually flow into the scorers. This can lead to isolation and transportation.

Now, I am sure everyone understands what is transportation so I will explain more on isolation this time. Isolation refers to the addition of silt (dirt basically) into the ocean. Dirt that flows into the ocean can end up settling on delicate coral reefs. In fact, if there’s too much dirt, it can even suffocate and kill the corals. Question 4 – INTRODUCED SPECIES First of all, what is actually introduced species? Well, the introduction of non-native species to an ecosystem has been identified to be one of the major cause of decreased biodiversity.

It is also called as exotic, non-indigenous, invasive species or likely to be known with the term alien species. As the names imply, these species do not belong to the foreign ecosystems in which they are either intentionally or unintentionally placed. These species tend to disrupt the ecosystem’s balance by multiplying rapidly. These species can be plants, fishes, mollusks, crustaceans, algae, bacteria or even viruses. Many alien species are transferred into marine ecosystems through the ballast water tank, transported during commercial shipping operations. Round the world every day? Well, based on the video that was being shown to us, I would suggest a type of kelp, the Unitarian fanatical (Phagocyte) which is a seaweed native to northeast Asia. I have tried finding a particular type of introduced species that can disrupt the ecosystem sensibly but it was in vain until I found an academic paper entitled “The invasive kelp Unitarian pontifical (Phagocyte, Luminaries) reduces native seaweed diversity in Novo Gulf (Patagonia, Argentina)” Ritter by students of the University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada.

The Unitarian pontifical seaweed Based on my readings, it is stated that during the last two decades, this particular kelp species has been accidentally or intentionally introduced in several temperate coasts worldwide and is somehow multiplying excessively as time passes by. This particular team of researchers had written that in central Patagonia, Argentina, this alien species of kelp was first detected in late 1992, and it is progressively spreading from the point of introduction.

Through a manipulative experiment involving Unitarian amoeba in 2001 , they found that its presence is associated with a dramatic decrease in species richness. In fact, it also causes the diversity of native seaweeds of Gulf Novo to decline tremendously. Scientists are worried of the future outcomes as in addition to the negative impact from a biodiversity viewpoint, native commercial macrophage and invertebrates might also be affected.

This will then lead to the lack of food supply for marine life and affects the food chain of animals like dolphins and whales found in Gulf Novo. These algae species are also very dangerous to the ell beings of marine life as they can expand rapidly in regions outside of their natural habitat and affect the growing populations and economic activities. In fact, it can also harm human health! Now, that is something serious which all of us must work together to put a stop on this problem.

This meaner that the native algae in Golf Novo are facing competition with these “alien” species as these pests actually limit their growth and harm other animals and fish that rely on the native algae for food. Unitarian fanatical is actually the seaweed that you find in the Miss soup of any Sushi King outlets here in Malaysia. A scientific research done on the health properties of Unitarian pinpointing which was executed by the Hookah University shows that a compound found in that particular seaweed or better known by its Japanese name, Waked, known as foxhunting can help burn fatty tissue.

Studies that were conducted by the Japanese scientists in mice proved that foxhunting stimulates the production of a fat-burning protein called ICP (uncoupling protein) or thermosetting. This protein accumulates in fat tissues around the internal organs and the expressions of these ICP protein was significantly increased in mice fed with contraction. Did you know that Japanese and Korean mothers who Just gave birth to their babies would drink Waked soup so that they can get rid of the excess fat in their bodies?!?

What do you think will happen if dolphins have this compound in their foxhunting is passed on to them by their prey who consume this type of seaweed. It is because, as we are all aware of, animals such as dolphins and whales depend on their thick layers of fat for insulation from the cold scorers. With these proteins running through their veins, I believe that it is possible that these animals may be exposed to hypothermia when their body fat is reduced greatly with the ICP hard at work.

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