DISCOVERIES IN CHEMISTRY AND THEIR IMPACTS ON PUBLIC LIFE INTRODUCTION Every single day, without even realising it, we use so many things that are brought to us by the discoveries and advances in chemistry. Many of these things we take for granted, and don’t even bother to question how it got there, why it is there, and how it works. Chemistry makes up everything in our lives, from the air that we breathe, to the plastic on the keyboard I’m typing on now, and a in depth study of some of the wonderful things chemistry has do for the modern day world, will help us to appreciate everything we have a great deal more.
For as long as we know, scientists have been creating, and improving new strategies to improve the lives of humans. INVENTION OF BATTERIES: One of the most important inventions was that of portable electricity. Yes, batteries. The same thing that we put into our CD player, in our remote control, in our wireless mouse, in our car and the list goes on. Batteries are one of the most widely used forms of electrical energy, and it’s hard to believe that the first battery ever created was way back in 1800.
Alessandro Volta was the inventor of the first ever battery, which consisted of layers of zinc, blotting paper soaked in salt water, and silver. In the 1800’s, the Daniel cell was developed, which is also known as the ? wet’ cell, as it used liquids for the electrolytes. It consists of copper and zinc plates, and copper and zinc sulphates. Although the Daniel cell worked, it was only suitable for stationary items, such as door bells as it was a wet cell. From this, modern day scientists have developed a range of different cells to cater to our specific needs.
There is the zinc carbon battery, which is relatively inexpensive is very commonly used as AA, C and D cells. Then there is the more powerful alkaline battery, and the lithium photo battery, which is able to supply power surges. ————————————————- OTHER IMPORTANT INVENTIONS AND ITS IMPACT * ————————————————- CHLORINE ————————————————- Discovered in 1774 by carl Wilhelm Scheele , who insisted that it was in fact an element. This element is a part of the halogen series forming salts. ————————————————-
Applications: ————————————————- Chlorine is an important chemical in water purification,in disinfectants,in bleach and mustard gas. ————————————————- It is also involved in bleaching wooden pulp for paper making,bleach is also used industrially to remove ink from recycle paper. | | | COAL BRICKS| FIELD: processing finely-dispersed high-moisture content coal cleaning products and coal fines with addition of inorganic binders. EFFECT: enhanced strength and water resistance of coal bricks; possibility of placing coal bricks for protracted storage. dwg, 1 tbl| | | | FIELD: pulp-and- paper industry. EFFECT: reduced consumption of power and chemical products, and reduced production costs. 23 cl, 6 dwg| | | HIGH-PURITY INDIUM POWDER| FIELD: production of high purity indium powder at processing zinc – indium containing intermediate products and waste materials. EFFECT: enhanced purity degree and fineness of made powder. 1 tbl, 1 ex | | | METHOD OF WATER SOFTENING| FIELD: drinking and technical water softening. EFFECT: increase of productivity of the method of a water softening at low power costs and xclusion of chemical pollution of the water. | | | METHOD FOR PRODUCING PICTURE IN POLYMERIC FILMS AND APPLICATION OF THESE METHODS| FIELD: optoelectronic displays using painted electrodes. EFFECT: facilitated procedure; reduced cost. 26 cl, 3 dwg, 7 ex| | | DEVICE FOR INCREASING OF COOLANT HEAT CONDUCTIVITY| FIELD: mechanical engineering equipment, particularly tool cooling system or detail surface cooling system. EFFECT: increased effectiveness of tool cooling. 2 cl, 2 dwg| | | FLUORINE RUBBER-BASED RUBBER COMPOUND| FIELD: rubber industry.
EFFECT: improved workability, decreased residual deformation, increased relative elongation at rupture, and improved appearance. 2 tbl, 4 ex| | | HIGH-PRESSURE BOTTLE AND METHOD OF ITS MANUFACTURE| FIELD: protracted storage and transportation of compressed and liquefied gases, mainly fire extinguishers. EFFECT: enhanced reliability and durability; facilitated procedure. 3 cl, 11 dwg| | | | | ————————————————- INVENTION OF PAINT: Paint is one of the greatest inventions. The secret is a new “copolymer surfactant” molecule that binds the color into a thicker, more durable paint.
The new paint molecules are long chains that surround pigment molecules, much like a strip of Velcro wrapped around a tennis ball, which provides more space for the latex to cling to. As a result, the paint covers any color in a single coat, leaves a washable finish. | | INVENTION OF MOLDING FINGERPRINTS:Benjamin Moore’s new Aura interior paint doesn’t require a primer, and the paint doesn’t stick, thanks to innovative chemistry. Materials chemists at the University of Toronto have developed a new elastic light-sensitive material that changes color based on pressure and could be used to capture data-rich fingerprints in multiple colors.
The material could also be used in pressure sensors in consumer products, such as consumer electronics, airbag deployment, strain and torque sensors in high-rise buildings, or even in children’s toys, where kids would press or squeeze the item to see it change color in front of their eyes. HARMFUL EFFECTS:Certain chemical products have harmful effects on human life and to the environment. these effects on human health can also concern workers involved In their production or use ,as well as the final consumer. in more general terms,the whole population can be exposed via the emission of such substances into the environment.
BAN ON ENDOSULFAN:Citing health hazards, the Karnataka Government today banned use of the pesticide Endosulfan with immediate effect. The cabinet, chaired by Chief Minister B S Yeddyurappa, took note of reports of physical deformities caused due to the usage of the pesticide in some areas. Briefing reporters after the cabinet meeting, Higher Education Minister V S Acharya said the adverse impact on humans, animals and birds due to aerial spray of Endosulfan is “scary”. Endosulfan is used as an insecticide for cashewnut crops in taluks such as Belthangady, Puttur and Bantwal, and Dr.
Acharya pointed to reports of physical deformities and diseases in the areas following aerial sprays. The Government decided to ban Endosulfan use for 60 days to start with and would continue the measure thereafter as well. “The Cabinet has taken a decision to recommend to the Central government to ban use of Endosulfan in Karnataka”, he said. Dr. Acharya indicated that the Central nod for the ban is a formality, saying: ”… they (the Centre) will give immediate concurrence. By sending a requisition (to the Centre), we get authority to ban”. He also noted that the neighbouring state of Kerala has already banned it.
AWERENESS AMONG THE PROFESSIONAL ENVIRONMENT:Several agencies and institutes have been asked to accompany enterprises or personnel using chemical products to use them better and provide them with information on regulations. also the INRS regularly publishes brochures on the prevention of risks linked to chemical products in the professional setting. CURRENT TREND:The scientific research in any discipline has the following aspects-choice of the area of research,funding of research,research methodology and distribution of the products of research. ut it is extremely unfortunate that more funds in most of the countries are being spent on weapons research than on finding solutions to basic human problems. Although the associated science has some positive spin-offs,such research has emerged as a tool of domination whether it is atomic,space,biological and chemical sciences or information technology. CONCLUSION:Thus there is a need to incorporate within science curricula,an exposure to humanities so that even scientists can appreciate the links between technological development and social change. |