The Chinese cultural core has many elements and variables to be considered. China is one of, if not the oldest civilizations still in existence. The Zhou dynasty brings a lot of culture to china, for a couple different reasons. The Zhou dynasty, originated deep in history from the Zhou clan. By around the 1 lth century BCE. This clan had become increasingly powerful and had extended their existence throughout the present Shaanxi and Dansu provinces. At the time the Shang dynasty was under a very unjust and evil ruler king Zhou.
Being that all the people had ill feelings oward the king, and the way he treated everybody, The leader of the Zhou clan at the time “Wenwang” figured it would be the right time to attack and take down the evil King Zhou. The Shang dynasty ended in about 1046 BCE. The Zhou kingdom named Shaanxi province its capital. The Zhou dynasty was the longest in Chinese history. It lasted for over eight hundred years, and within those years it held thirty-seven emperors. The Zhou dynasty is split into two separate periods: the Western Zhou, and the eastern Zhou.
Western and eastern periods sound like they are actual territories but theyre not, they are time periods. Western Zhou’s capital laid Just to the west of the eastern Zhous capitols. The Eastern Dynasty is actually divided into the “spring and Autumn Periods” (770 BC-476 BC) and the “Warring States Period” (476 BCE-221 BCE). Each of the periods featured turbulent bloody, brutal, drawn out wars. The Zhou dynasty is very relevant to Chinese culture, prior to the Zhou dynasty, The Shang dynasty hadn’t made much head way in evolving their situation.
When the Zhou Dynasty took over, the achievements in economy, politics, science and culture were much more advanced and useful than the prior rulers had ome up with. Now as we further discuss more foundations in building China’s culture, The interesting chain of events within the warring states are going to be relevant in many different ways and from many different angles. The warring states period refers to the time periods between around 481 BCE. – 221 BCE.
This very brutal and complicated story happens within a time period when the small cities, states, and kingdoms of the spring and autumn period, were all violently consolidated into seven major sections to be recognized. Qi (Chi), Chu (Choo), Yan (yawn), Han (hon), Wei (way), Qin (chin). The documented actual beginning of the warring states is marked in the pages of history in association with when the Jin state is partitioned due to the greed and existing history between rival families. The new states are divided three ways; called the Han, Zhao and Wet.
In any case discussed partitions take a long time, and at this point in history decades. So the exact date is rough but some would speculate, and say around; 481, 475 468 BCE. In the midst of all this change and modification, Marquis Wen of the Wei ascends to power. This was going to inspire and sponsor Confucianism in the Wei state. This motion was supported by very able fair and superior minds at the time, such as legalist Ll Kui, a militant officer Wu Qui and a hydraulic engineer Xiamen Bao.
These important figures are going to help launch one of the strongest influences of belief in history. The Mandate of heaven (heavens will) is now becoming a legitimate belief and practice being implemented in the Zhou dynasty. Since the Zhou dynasty was at the top of the political chain, they had to somehow legitimize the action of taking over the Shang dynasty. It did so by claiming the Mandate of Heaven, the notion that the upreme ruler earn or lose the Mandate to rule based upon his virtue or lack thereof.
Simply explained, Heaven rules earth not directly, but through the “Son of heaven” or the chosen emperor. As heaven Rules through the son of Heaven, His internal personal moral standards are what dictate the condition of the society ruled by him. Emperors with high virtuous standings ensure that people suffer no heavy tax implementation, In turn solidifying societys willingness to follow the law. Furthermore his virtues encourage Heaven to be kind to earth so that the farmers ould receive timely rain but not suffer any floods or droughts.
The mandate of heaven carried the belief that if the ideal ruler is to ensure the societies prosperity through his virtue, adverse conditions such as flood, drought, and/or famine, which happen often in china, is to be blamed on the lack of virtuosity of the ruler. When the natural disasters devastate the country, the ruler has the obligation to fix the situation, with money or food, and/or crucial resources. Carried with this belief are the severe consequences, if the people don’t think he fulfilled his duties to amend verything, it gave the people Justification to rebel.
So if you look at the mandate, it serves as a sort of social contract as well. The Rulers, not Just the emperors but also local lords, are expected to show “ren”, or “their love for the people”, to ensure the ideal state of peaceful and prosperity. I they fail to do so, in the eyes of the people, they theoretically have the right to manually remove the unworthy ruler. Everything considered it comes to the ideological core of the mandate of china. When the Chou tribe overthrew the last Shang king, they had to convince the people nd especially the nobles, which they had the right to rule.
The Chou told people that gods in heaven had told them that they were to rule. This was called “The mandate of Heaven” or “heavens orders”. The Chou then explained to everyone that you can only rule as long as you rule Justly. If you become selfish or prioritize yourself first, the heaven would appoint another family to run the show. We don’t know for certain if the nobles really believed the mandate of heaven, but they probably thought it was a really good idea, and a very efficient way to rule the people. The mandates Core deological principles were; “the right to rule is granted by heaven. . “There is only one Heaven therefore there can only be one ruler. ” “The right to rule is based on the virtue of the ruler. ” Some examples of how exactly these were played out into the roles of society are; It gave the rulers definate prestige and more religious importance than the common person. It actually gives the ruler supreme power, over really everything. It also allowed for a quick and easy transition into the next rulers reign. When a new ruler would rise up, as long as the people believed he had the mandate of heaven everything went smooth.
Examining the fact that the rulers virtue is what determines how well he ruled, there were a lot of loop holes in this rule because, the ruler at the time was also held accountable for natural disasters. It plays out to be another religion, mind control power that has existed from apparently the beginning of time as I’m learning. The Mandate of heaven also Justifies throwing a rebellion as long as the rebellion is successful. This translate to the practice that one’s virtues were being weighed in their actions, and that the level of virtuosity in both parties is what primarily influences the outcome.
When the rebellion was successful, I It might have implied that they did have a mandate from heaven, or they might have thought they had good personal morality, because the “gods” looking down on said rebellion must have blessed it, or willed it to happen. The mandate of heaven was one of the heaviest influences it seems on the combination of religion and politics. These two parties are so important amongst the public, that if you can manipulate the media in your favor in either politics or religion, it seems you could easily control the simple minded less free thinking masses.