Chemical Compositions and Configuration of Enzymes

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ESSAY ANSWERS CHAP 6 1. Describe the chemical compositions and configuration of enzymes and discuss the factors that modify enzyme structure and/or function. STANDARDS: Max= 10 pts CHEMICAL COMPOSITION AND CONFIGURATION Proteins/Large Molecules/ Polypeptides/CHONS/CN Terminals (1 max) Prosthetic Groups/Metal Atoms/Apoenzyme/Coenzyme/Cofactor (1 max) Primary and Secondary with Discussion (1 max) Tertiary OR Quaternary with Discussion / Globular (1 max) Specificity or “Lock and Key” (1 pt)

Peptide Bonds/Covalent Bonds for Primary Folding to Form a Groove, Active Site (1 pt) 3D Configuration due to Van der Waal, R group, ionic, etc. (1 pt) Hydrophobic/ Hydrophilic (1 pt) Maximum = 4 FACTORS THAT MODIFY ENZYME ACTION AND/OR FUNCTION: Temperature = 1 Discussion of Effect on Structure = 1 Denatures Protein/3D shape altered = 1 (reaction rate changes) Breakage of weak bonds changes enzyme’s shape = 1 Discussion of Effect on Function = 1 PHz 1 (altering of active site results in inability of substrate to bond at site)

Allosteric Inhibition and discussion of Effect on Structure = 1 (binding of an effector on an enzymes changes shape of enzyme) (results in activation or inactivation) Competitive Inhibition and discussion of Effect on Function = 1 (competitive molecule binds to active site blocking it/NO rx) May reverse action by increasing substrate/enzyme concentration = 1 Inhibition and discussion of Effect on Function Irreversible or Noncompetitive (binding of molecule blocks functional groups at active site) = 1 Activation of an Enzymatic Precursor on tructure = 1 (pepsinogen to pepsin) (nonfunctional to active) Genetic mistakes Modify Structure/Function of Enzymes = 1 relative to control = 1 back Inhibition Induced Fit – binding of substrate to enzyme alters shape = 1 Amount of substrate to Amount of enzyme – modifies function = 1 denaturation = 1 Factors may change energy of activation = 1 Ionic Factors affect structure and/or function = 1 Binding of Effector to speed activation/deactivation = Reversible/lrreversible Maximum

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