CHAPTER 1 THE PROBLEM AND THE REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE INTRODUCTION A resort is like a small community composed of buildings and facilities located in a scenic area that provides lodging, entertainment, and a relaxing environment for people on vacation. Basic accommodations offered by resorts nowadays are swimming pools, cottage and room rentals, and restaurants. The resort business is becoming popular nowadays due to the growing demand of people for a convenient one-stop-place of leisure and comfort. The resort is a business in which they offer enjoyable moments to visitors to make them feel that something worth noticing happens.
Vacationers enjoy significant moments and the charm they feel also rewards the organization with genuine monetary gain in lieu of the staffs’ persistent efforts to make such places heavenly. Villa Concepcion Wet & Wild Waves, Inc. is a growing resort business located in Masuso, Pandi, Bulacan. If people want to avoid the crowded areas especially during the hot summer season, this resort is definitely their choice. It has seven pools to choose from and a variety of affordable cottages and rooms available for the guests. They allow telephone reservations and accept walk-in guests.
In today’s world, information technology is becoming a necessity. It helps in doing things easier, faster, and more convenient. It is beneficial to individuals and organizations such as business enterprises, companies, institutions, and the government. One big contribution of the information technology is the computer. A computer is a machine which can take instructions, and perform computations based on those instructions. Computers are fast becoming our way of life and one cannot imagine life without computers in today’s world.
You go to a hotel for reservation, you buy a ticket for a cinema, you go to a library, or you go to a bank, you will find computers at all places. Almost all business entities use computer systems in dealing with their transactions and storage of their files. Computer has made the work easy with its speed, memory, reliability in computing, and ease to retrieve data. The study is made for the VCWWWI that deals with day-to-day operations transaction systems, room and cottages reservation, property management system, conference and banqueting system, and stock-control system.
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE History of Resorts Roman Empire: Baths The origin of resorts can be traced back to the second century B. C. to the public baths of Rome. The first baths were small, modest and separated the genders. Eventually, the baths became larger, more elaborate and were opened to both men and women. These baths were large buildings built at the public’s expense. Some were even built by wealthy emperors who wanted to make a statement. Most baths were free but few had small entrance fees. Baths were much like resorts of today because of all the amenities offered at their location.
After bathing there was always plenty to do. Most baths included gyms, libraries, snack bars, restaurants, shops, lounges, taverns, museums and theatres. The facilities were used for health and social purposes. Europe: Mass Follows Class The first noteworthy resort area was developed in Belgium in 1326 in a town now called Spa. An ironmaster, named Colin le Loup, was cured of a long-term illness when he bathed in the iron-rich waters near Liege. He opened a shelter there and the town surged in popularity. Spa means fountain.
The popularity of spas and resorts in England is a result of King Charles II visiting trendy hot spots in the 1600s. Today, royalty and superstars still seem to set trends of where the best places to go are. Many English spas are unique because they have gambling and dancing. Spas also became popular because of the medical benefits that were attributed to them such as waters that were rich in certain minerals and could cure ailments. The Swiss resort industry was developed in the 1800s to aid the need of private resort facilities for more prosperous people.
At the time, travel was not simple. People who traveled to resorts stayed for long periods of time – up to two months to get the best value for their travel expenses. This led to resort facilities being built to accommodate a guest better than your average inn. Hotel Baur au Lac, built in Zurich, was the first resort to utilize the value of a scenic view. At first, Switzerland resorts were seen as summer places, but soon skiing became popular as well as gambling. North America: Spas Like Europe, North American hotels were developed around spas in the late 1800s.
The first resorts were built first in the east in Virginia, New York and West Virginia. Shortly after, seaside resorts became popular. It was not until later that beach resorts were built in the south and mountain-based resorts were developed out west. The first luxury resort was built in 1829 in Boston. It was called the Tremont House and featured bellboys, gaslights instead of candles and marble and private rooms with locks for each family. The first ‘big’ hotel was built by Gideon Putman in Saratoga Springs, New York centered on the hot sulfur spa there. http://iml. jou. ufl. du/projects/Spring05/Osterer/history. html Water-based Resorts While mountain-based and golf and tennis-based resorts are geared toward people that are relatively athletic, water-based resorts target people with all abilities. One can relax on a beach for hours without lifting a finger. Another could swim or jet ski until they are exhausted. Water-based resorts serve different ability levels of people and all ages. Many resorts design their facility around the natural environment that surrounds them. This allows them to frame their recreational activities to the natural land.
This enables them to create amenities unique to their property. Often resorts use water for a variety of recreational activities that cater to a wide range of people. These include: * Natural beaches that may be used for sunbathing, swimming, scuba diving, snorkeling, sandcastle building, jet skiing, kayaking, etc. * Trails and open spaces can be designed around lakes and wetlands. These areas can be used as fishing or camping sites. * Golf courses built on coast lines are growing in value and popularity. In the United States, many resorts highlight the views to promote their golf course. Marinas bring tourism to resorts as sailboats, motorized crafts and wind surfing stop to refuel or rest. When it comes to beach resorts, many variables come into play. A good beach should have a gentle uniform slope of about 7 percent. This creates a comfortable incline for sunbathers, walkers, joggers and sand-castle builders. The water purity and sand color are vital to an aesthetically pleasing area. In developing a beach-based resort, the designer should also consider the back beach which offers a view to both the sea and inland.
Rooms with a scenic view are more profitable than rooms without it. Additionally, the surrounding area should be assessed to ensure access to major roads and other basic needs of guests that the resort cannot support. Other resorts use pools as a major source of entertainment. Using heated pools in winter assures that the facility is year-round friendly. Activities such as water bingo, log rolling and relay races may all be performed in the pool. Resorts can also host fitness classes in pools. A creative way to use water in northern resorts is to build indoor water parks.
Safety should be a major concern for water-based resorts. Staff should be Red Cross trained if guarding pools and beaches. Drowning is the second leading cause of unintentional injury related to children ages 14 and under. http://iml. jou. ufl. edu/projects/Spring05/Osterer/water. html Hotel Definition Origins of the term The word hotel derives from the French hotel, which referred to a French version of a townhouse, not a place offering accommodation (in contemporary usage, hotel has the meaning of “hotel”, and hotel particulier is used for the old meaning).
The French spelling (with the circumflex) was once also used in English, but is now rare. The circumflex replaces the ‘s’ once preceding the ‘t’ in the earlier hostel spelling, which over time received a new, but closely related meaning. Services and facilities Basic accommodation of a room with only a bed, a cupboard, a small table and a washstand has largely been replaced by rooms with en-suite bathrooms and, more commonly in the United States than elsewhere, climate control. Other features found may be a telephone, an alarm clock, a TV, and broadband Internet connectivity.
Food and drink may be supplied by a mini-bar (which often includes a small refrigerator) containing snacks and drinks (to be paid for on departure), and tea and coffee making facilities (cups, spoons, an electric kettle and sachets containing instant coffee, tea bags, sugar, and creamer or milk). In the United Kingdom a hotel is required by law to serve food and drinks to all comers within certain stated hours; to avoid this requirement it is not uncommon to come across “private hotels” which are not subject to this requirement.
However, in Japan the capsule hotel supplies minimal facilities and room space. Classification The cost and quality of hotels are usually indicative of the range and type of services available. Due to the enormous increase in tourism worldwide during the last decades of the 20th century, standards, especially those of smaller establishments, have improved considerably. For the sake of greater comparability, rating systems have been introduced, with the one to five stars classification being most common. http://reservation. travelaffiliatepro. com/content/hoteldefinition. tml The History of Hotels: From Economic To Extravagant Evidence of hotels and the hospitality industry have been recorded as far back as biblical times when Mary and Joseph arrived in Bethlehem during the census. As the Bible depicts, Mary and Joseph were refused accommodations because there “was no room at the inn. ” Since the beginning of time, people have traveled for commerce, religion, family, health, immigration, education and recreation. As cited by Texas Tech University, the word “hospitality” comes from the Latin root meaning “host” or “hospice. The university further noted that the first hotels were nothing more than private homes opened to the public. Most, unfortunately, had poor reputations. Under the influence of the Roman Empire, inns and hotels began catering to the pleasure traveler in an effort to encourage visitors. The first inn located in America was recorded in the year 1607 and lead the way with many other firsts in the hospitality industry. The first publicly held hotel (the City Hotel) opened in New York in 1792. The first modern hotel (the Tremont) opened in Boston in 1809 and the first business hotel (the Buffalo Statler) opened in 1908.
From there a surge of hotels flooded American and the rest of the world with prominent names such as Radisson, Marriot and Hilton. Price, Service, Amenities Hotels (as well as other forms of accommodations) are generally segmented by the services and amenities offered. These two factors, along with location, also have a bearing on the price range. * Budget hotels offer clean albeit simple rooms that provide the basics of places to sleep and shower. Usually budget hotels are designed for travelers looking to maximize their funds and minimize expenses. Prices can range from $20US per night to $70US per night. Business hotels offer a high standard by providing rooms equipped with what business travelers would consider necessities. Usually found in business-class hotel rooms are high speed Internet connections, alarm clocks, comfortable beds, irons and ironing boards, coffee makers, complimentary newspaper delivery and hairdryers. Rates can range from $80US per night to $250US per night. * The facility of a business hotel would also offer an in-house restaurant, bar, exercise room and shuttle service to nearby airports. Limit concierge assistance is often included as well as room service, laundry and dry cleaning and wake-up calls. Luxury hotels are known for their lavish decor and extraordinary service. With superior amenities, accommodations at luxury hotels are designed to thoroughly pamper and impress guests. According to a Business Week Online article, those in the luxury market are getting harder to please stating that luxury goods and service providers can’t afford to blunder with the level of service and customer experience they provide. For this reason, many luxury hotels go far beyond the norm by providing a lifestyle experience equal to or better than what guests have become accustomed to at home. Luxury hotels frequently offer full-service day spas, five-star restaurants staffed by world-class chefs, ballrooms, lavish pools, golf packages and guest services that are unsurpassed by any other class of hotel. In addition, luxury rooms generally include those amenities found in business class hotels plus in-room safes, goose down comforters and pillows, marble showers and tubs, larger rooms, separate sitting or living area and fog-free bathroom mirrors. Rates can range from $129US per night to $2,000US per night. Rates vary greatly depending on location and proximity to popular events and attractions.
There are other classifications of hotels, however, most will fall into one of these three or a combination of these three. With the lines between business and personal becoming more blurred, many entrepreneurs and business executives will attend conferences or embark on business trips with family in tow. Hotels are aware of this common occurrence and have become adept at providing facilities and service both business and recreational travelers enjoy. http://www. searchandgo. com/travel/hotels-history. php Definition of Information Technology
Information technology has been defined by the Information Technology Association of America, or the ITAA as being the study, design, development, implementation support and/or management of any computer based information systems. This relates particularly to software applications and computer hardware. Information technology deals with using electronic computers and software to convert, store, protect, process, retrieve with security or transmit any information. What began many years ago as a term that many had no awareness of to a term that has skyrocketed to include several aspects of computing and technology.
IT is a wide based term and encompasses many areas. Professionals in information technology may perform a wide variety of tasks that range from installing computer applications to designing widely complex computer networks and information databases. Everything from data management, networking, engineering computer hardware, software design, database design and management and administration of systems is included in the term of information technology. When covering the aspects of IT as a whole, the use of computers and information are typically associated.
The history of IT goes back several years. In order to perform the functions associated with the field of technology the modern field will use computers, servers, database management systems and cryptography. It was not very long ago that the field of IT only consisted of a single computer operator who stored data on a magnetic tape and then placed it in storage. Times have changed drastically in the field of technology from its inception several years ago. The field today typically includes a Chief Information Officer and several individuals who work together to achieve their goals.
Years ago there was simply a single operator who performed all the tasks related to this form of technology. Today the job outlook for people interested in this field is very good. With data security and server specialists among the highest paid in the field, those with the needed skills and a keen interest in IT stand to earn a substantial annual income. With the increasing concern for data storage and management, along with the security issues that most companies and corporations are facing, a career in IT is an excellent choice or those who possess mathematical and strategic planning skills. Since 1961 the Information Technology Association of America has been working to enhance the interests of US technology and electronics industries. This association provides leadership training in areas relating to business development, public policy, market forecasting and standards of development to a large number of corporations. The ITAA provides a grassroots approach to global networking for companies, market and government from the smallest local level to a global audience.
It currently represents more than 16,000 information technological related companies throughout the world. Based in Washington, DC, the Information Technology Association of American is the only organization of its kind that helps to unite local, state, national and global businesses in the area of technology. While technology today encompasses a wide range of individual focuses, it is becoming increasing clear that the IT field of the future will include many more topics and more demand than ever before.
For those interested in becoming part of this rapidly growing field the time is now. Getting in on new developments could prove to be a very exciting and lucrative choice. http://ezinearticles. com/? Definition-of-Information-Technology;id=1109986 Advantages of Information Technology in the Business World Not only is information technology a fascinating and rewarding field for those with an interest in programming or computer systems, workers in nearly every other industry benefit from the advantages of information technology.
From high-speed communications systems to complex, specialized databases to customized internal computer networks, information technology is inseparable from the modern business world. In industries as diverse as health care, government, education and manufacturing, IT professionals work to meet a wide array of technology demands. IT professionals choose hardware and software appropriate to the requirements of a particular organization, and then they take charge of its installation, maintenance, security and efficiency.
In many cases, their management skills and business acumen are just as important as their ability to work with computing technology. http://www. allbusinessschools. com/business-careers/article/advantages-of-information-technology Hotel and Catering Software Applications Vertical-market software for the hospitality industry can be divided into three broad categories: hotel, catering and back-office An important concept when discussing hospitality-related software is integrated hotel system, which is a set of computer applications that, together, assist in managing and controlling all aspects of hotel operations.
Such a system helps management to better satisfy the needs of the guests, and should be capable of handling every transaction from the guest’s initial telephone inquiry to their final billing. An integrated hotel system is composed of many different systems linked together, which include the following: * Reservation systems. Many authors include the reservation function within the property-management system. However, with the growing importance of central reservations system (CRS) and other forms of electronic distribution, and the development of techniques such as yield management, reservations system must now be discussed separately.
A reservation system has two primary functions: to display room availability and to manage bookings. Other functions can include the ability to track guest deposits and travel agent commission, and the ability to provide important management and operational information. * Property-management systems (PMS). Sometimes referred to as front-office systems, these track which rooms are currently occupied or vacant in the hotel, and maintain the guests’ folios by recording details of sales and payment transactions.
A PMS is now a necessity for most hotels and it would be difficult, if not impossible, to manage a hotel of 100 bedrooms or more without one. * A multitude of ancillary systems used to support the hotel’s PMS. For example, electronic door-locking systems generate a unique electronic key each time a new guest is registered, thus helping to increase security. Energy-management systems help to reduce heat and power costs by automatically turning off heating or air conditioning in rooms or sections of the hotel which are unoccupied.
In-room entertainment systems provide extra services such as information screens, films, or computer games to guests while at the same time generating additional revenue for the hotel. Telephone systems record data on each call made from the direct-dial telephone in the guest’s room. Several computer systems from the catering area also interface with the PMS. For example, electronic point-of-sales (EPOS) systems record the transactions that occur in the hotel’s bars and food outlets, while mini-bars are used to provide drinks and small food items in the guestroom.
In the last three cases, integration between the systems allows charges to be posted automatically to the guest’s account folio, thus helping to increase security and ensure that the guest does not depart without paying for all services received. * Catering information systems (CIS). These manage and control all aspects of food and beverage productions and sales. A CIS is also composed of several separate systems linked together to exchange data. Recipe-costing systems accurately cost food and beverage items and automatically update costs when ingredient prices change.
Stock-control systems track inventory movements, record deliveries and issues, and identify variances between actual and theoretical stock. EPOS systems transfer orders electronically from the service area to the kitchen, and ensure that guest bills are legible, accurately priced and up to date. Conference and banqueting systems manage and control the complex tasks of function reservations, organization and billing. Other examples of catering-related software packages focus on specialist areas such as beverage control, nutritional analysis and menu engineering.
Integration is very important for the efficient operation of these systems. For example, the recipe-costing system uses up-to-date prices from the stock-control system to calculate the cost of various recipes, which are then combined to form menus. These menus are sold to the customer through both the conference and banqueting system and the EPOS. They are also used, together with the sales data from the EPOS to detect variances in stock levels by the stock-control system. * Back-office systems. Software is also widely used in what could be described as the normal business areas of the hospitality industry.
For example, accounting systems track debtors and creditors and generate final accounts and management reports periodically. Payroll systems automate the process of calculating wages and salaries, as well as maintaining period-to-date balances. Software is also used in the marketing area for data warehousing and database marketing. Each of the above hospitality systems can be (and often is) used separately. However, the systems are much more effective if integrated and allowed to communicate with each other.
For example, recipe-costing is much more accurate if the recipe-costing system can access the latest purchase prices from the stock control system. Similarly, security and control are greatly increased if ancillary systems such as electronic door locks and EPOS are linked directly into the property-management system. It is integration at this level that has given rise to the concept of the integrated hotel system—a suite of software packages which are linked and assist in managing and controlling all aspects of a hospitality establishment’s operations.
Hotel Central Reservations Offices The growth of travel in the 1960s, which prompted the airlines to develop computerized reservations systems, put similar pressures on the hotels. Individual properties were receiving growing numbers of telephone calls, letters and telexes from potential customers wanting to book accommodation. Large clerical squads were needed to sort mail, type letters, send telegrams and handle other requests. Bottlenecks were frequent, administration costs skyrocketed and experienced staffs were in short supply.
An opportunity for rationalization was recognized by many of the US hotel chains. They noted the inefficiencies of the existing system and determined the best way to serve the customer, and at the same time provide a valuable service to their member hotels, were to centralize the reservations function into central reservations offices (CROs). These functioned in a similar manner to the reservations offices operated by the airlines, except, of course, the product being sold was hotel rooms, not airline seats.
The CRO kept track of the rates, availability, special packages, negotiated rates and descriptions of each property, and allowed customers to book any room in the chain by contacting a single central location. The booking process was further simplified by the introduction of toll-free telephone services in the United States in the mid-1960s, which allowed potential customers to make a single free telephone call to inquire about or book any of the chain’s hotels anywhere in the world. The UK-based budget hotel group Travelodge provides a very good example of how a CRO can operate efficiently.
In all its marketing, the group publishes only a single free number that connects the customer (be it a travel agent or independent traveler) to the central reservations office. Individual reservation numbers for each property are not published and individual lodges do not handle advanced reservations, referring all inquiries to the CRO. In this way, reservations staff and operating costs on a group basis are kept to the minimum. Particularly interesting is its philosophy of never being full.
Should the particular lodge requested not have rooms available, accommodation is automatically offered at a nearby alternative. Centralizing the reservation function also bring other advantages. Bottlenecks are reduced while, at the same time, reservations agent are used more intensively than they would be at unit level as centralization helps to average out the busy and slack periods. A more professional level of customer service is possible because of the use of dedicated, well-trained staff, and service quality is also more consistent as centralization makes it easier to monitor and control.
Overall, the lesson is clear: a centralized booking environment is faster, more efficient and, if well-designed, far more economical to operate than unit level reservation offices. Only two major costs remained: telecommunications, as the CRO had to pay for the provision of the toll-free service; and the labor cost of the reservations agents needed to answer phones and process other inquiries. It didn’t take companies long to figure out that these, too, could be reduced by allowing customers direct access to their systems electronically.
The incremental cost of processing a booking electronically is dramatically less expensive than processing a free call to a CRO. For example, a recent estimate claims that a voice booking, through a CRO, costs hotels between ? 12 and ? 15, while the cost of processing it electronically can be as low as ? 3. 50 (HSMAI, 1995). Computerized Reservation Systems Initially, central reservations agents processed booking by checking on ‘Availability Blackboards’ displayed on the walls of the center, or in massive books which were updated by hand.
However, as booking volumes grew, these manual operating methods were quickly overwhelmed and hotel companies introduced computers to help manage the increasing workload. By developing their own systems, hotel companies gave themselves both the opportunity and the flexibility to make the systems more closely match the requirements of the hotel product. Free from the constraints of the GDS, the new systems were capable of incorporating extensive product details written in full, bbreviation-free English, along with an unlimited number of rates and room types. These developments made the system far more effective as both an informative and marketing tool, as it gave the hotelier the opportunity to differentiate based on product quality and features, as well as on price. Travel agents also benefited from the development of CROs and CRSs. Traditionally, they had used published travel guides such as the ABC Guide to find information when looking for a hotel to meet a guest’s needs and budget.
While these provide considerable information on the facilities, etc, they rarely show room rates, as they are published infrequently and would become outdated too quickly. As a result, travel agents had to contact the hotel directly to determine rates and availability, which usually involved expensive long-distance telephone calls. Thus the advent of the CRO, which provided a free number to find information about and to make bookings in any hotel in a chain, greatly helped to reduce costs and encourage the booking of hotel rooms by the travel agents.
However, as travel agents were already familiar with the use of computer systems for information search and booking purposes because of their use of the airline systems, the increasingly began to demand that hotel rooms be made available in the same way. From the travel agent’s perspective, the cost of finding information and processing a booking is much lower electronically. Using an electronic system, a travel agent with a client flying to Glasgow can check availability in hotels in the area on the required date, see what room rates each is offering, and make a booking in seconds and at a minimal cost.
Making the same booking manually would involve several long-distance phone calls and possibly a fax to confirm the details, which together with the time expended would probably make the transaction unprofitable. In monetary terms, Thomas Cook estimate that the cost of making a hotel booking over the telephone is approximately ? 3, as opposed to 76 pence to reserve the same room electronically. As a result, many agencies actively discourage their staff from using manual search and booking methods, and operations not available on their computerized systems will lose out.
Reservations Systems Operation Irrespective of whether the reservation is being made at the unit or the central level, the method of actually processing the reservation is relatively standard. The process starts with an Availability Inquiry. The date of arrival needed is entered, along with the type(s) of room and the number of nights required. The system will respond by displaying room availability for the requested period and, on some systems, the rate to be offered to the client. If the requested accommodation is unavailable, the system may allow overbooking up to predetermined limits.
If rooms are available, the client’s name, address, and telephone number are entered, along with details such as method of payment, the source of business and any special requirements. Utilities to help speed up the reservation process may be provided. For example, some systems allow the postal code to be entered first; from this most of the address can be filled automatically by the computer, and only minor details such as the street number need to be edited. Similarly, if the guest has stayed in the hotel before, or is a member of the chain’s loyalty club, such details may be automatically drawn from the guest history system.
When all the details have been entered, a confirmation number is generated by the reservation system, which the guest can quote if the reservation needs to be changed at a later date. An individually addressed letter, fax, or e-mail, confirming the details of the reservation, is later generated as part of the night audit. Most systems also accept group reservations, which operate in a slightly different manner. First of all, a master reservation is set up with the group details and a block of rooms is allocated to the group. A special rate for the group may be offered and programmed into the system.
Special accounting instructions (such as billing a master folio for all accommodation and breakfast charges and the individual room folios for all other charges) can also be setup at this stage, thus helping to eliminate unnecessary work for the front-office staff. Individual group members can then make their own reservations, and are allocated rooms from the reserved block. Property Management Systems The front-office is often described as the center of all hotel activities. It not only acts as the main contact point between the hotel and the guest, but also provides information to and receives information from practically very other department in the hotel. A property management system (PMS) helps manage these interactions, and at the same time acts as an information hub for the other computer systems. These functions of the PMS may be broken down into the following different categories: * Registration – allocating vacant rooms to incoming guests and marking those rooms as being occupied. * Housekeeping – tracking which rooms are occupied, waiting to be cleaned, waiting to be inspected, or ready to be passed back to the front desk for allocation to incoming guests. Guest accounting – tracking all guest charges and payments and producing the final guest bill. * Night audit – automatically performing end-of-day routines such as posting room charges to each guest folio. Stock-Control Systems A stock-control system helps manage and control the flow of stock through an organization by recording the value of each stock item in different locations (such as the central stores, the dry stores, and the kitchen) and tracking stock movements into, out of and between each of these locations.
The concept of stock control is based on the accounting principle that the item’s opening stock, plus its purchases must be equal to its closing stock plus the amount consumed. If these are not equal, then what is known as a variance exists, which means that some of the stock is missing. However, carrying out stock control manually is very labor-intensive and time-consuming. For example, to check a single product, the amount of that product delivered and issued over the period has to be calculated by totaling the delivery dockets and requisitions, respectively.
The previous period’s closing stock period would then have to be found, and the theoretical closing stock figure calculated. Then the quantity of the item actually in stock would have to be established by performing a stock take and physically counting the number of the product in each storage location. Lastly, theoretical and actual figures would have to be compared to see if any variance existed. All the effort for just a single stock item! In any reasonably sized catering operation, the same process would have to be performed for hundreds, if not thousands of products on a regular basis.
Using a computerized system, all the boring, repetitive and error-prone calculations are carried out automatically. Most of the data needed (apart from the actual stock figures) is already available on the system (for example, opening stock is available from the previous period, purchases from the records of deliveries and returns, and issues from the record of requisitions from the sales units) and the calculations can be carried out in seconds by the computer. As a result, the likelihood of errors is reduced and the stock-control process can be carried out more frequently with little extra effort. O’Connor, 2000) REVIEW OF RELATED MODELS System Development Life Cycle The Systems Development Life Cycle (SDLC) is a conceptual model used in project management that describes the stages involved in an information system development project from an initial feasibility study through maintenance of the completed application. Various SDLC methodologies have been developed to guide the processes involved including the waterfall model (the original SDLC method), rapid application development (RAD), joint application development (JAD), the fountain model and the spiral model.
Mostly, several models are combined into some sort of hybrid methodology. Documentation is crucial regardless of the type of model chosen or devised for any application, and is usually done in parallel with the development process. Some methods work better for specific types of projects, but in the final analysis, the most important factor for the success of a project may be how closely particular plan was followed. http://www. startvbdotnet. com/sdlc/sdlc. aspx Waterfall System Development Life Cycle Model The simplest software development life cycle model is the waterfall model, which states that the phases are organized in a linear order.
A project begins with feasibility analysis. On the successful demonstration of the feasibility analysis, the requirements analysis and project planning begins. The design starts after the requirements analysis is done. And coding begins after the design is done. Once the programming is completed, the code is integrated and testing is done. On successful completion of testing, the system is installed. After this the regular operation and maintenance of the system takes place. http://www. freetutes. com/systemanalysis/sa2-waterfall-software-life-cycle. tml; Prototyping System Development Life Cycle Model The goal of prototyping based development is to counter the first two limitations of the waterfall model discussed earlier. The basic idea here is that instead of freezing the requirements before a design or coding can proceed, a throwaway prototype is built to understand the requirements. This prototype is developed based on the currently known requirements. Development of the prototype obviously undergoes design, coding and testing. But each of these phases is not done very formally or thoroughly.
By using this prototype, the client can get an “actual feel” of the system, since the interactions with prototype can enable the client to better understand the requirements of the desired system. Prototyping is an attractive idea for complicated and large systems for which there is no manual process or existing system to help determining the requirements. In such situations letting the client “plan” with the prototype provides invaluable and intangible inputs which helps in determining the requirements for the system. It is also an effective method to demonstrate the feasibility of a certain approach.
This might be needed for novel systems where it is not clear that constraint can be met or that algorithms can be developed to implement the requirements. http://www. freetutes. com/systemanalysis/sa2-prototyping-model. html Spiral Life Cycle Model This is a recent model that has been proposed by Boehm. As the name suggests, the activities in this model can be organized like a spiral. The spiral has many cycles. The radial dimension represents the cumulative cost incurred in accomplishing the steps dome so far and the angular dimension represents the progress made in completing each cycle of the spiral.
The structure of the spiral model is shown in the figure given below. Each cycle in the spiral begins with the identification of objectives for that cycle and the different alternatives are possible for achieving the objectives and the imposed constraints. The next step in the spiral life cycle model is to evaluate these different alternatives based on the objectives and constraints. This will also involve identifying uncertainties and risks involved. The next step is to develop strategies that resolve the uncertainties and risks. This step may involve activities such as benchmarking, simulation and prototyping.
Next, the software is developed by keeping in mind the risks. Finally the next stage is planned. The next step is determined by remaining risks. For example, its performance or user-interface risks are considered more important than the program development risks. The next step may be evolutionary development that involves developing a more detailed prototype for resolving the risks. On the other hand, if the program development risks dominate and previous prototypes have resolved all the user-interface and performance risks; the next step will follow the basic waterfall approach.
The risk driven nature of the spiral model allows it to accommodate any mixture of specification-oriented, prototype-oriented, simulation-oriented or some other approach. An important feature of the model is that each cycle of the spiral is completed by a review, which covers all the products developed during that cycle, including plans for the next cycle. The spiral model works for developed as well as enhancement projects. http://www. freetutes. com/systemanalysis/sa2-spiral-model. html SYNTHESIS Even long ago, resorts existed but not as extravagant as those made today.
Resorts started from simple public baths in ancient Rome and developed into spas in Europe around the 1300s. In North America, people started on building hotels and inns nearby the spas. Not long after that, Americans had started to develop beach resorts and mountain-based resorts. There started the wide variety of services and amenities offered by the resort management. Services and amenities offered by the resorts mainly depend on what kind of resort they are. There are different kinds of resorts and one of the most popular types is the water-based resort.
Swimming pools and beaches are popular in this type. There are many activities that can be done in water-based resorts. In beaches, you can do parasailing, jet skiing and other popular extreme and fun endeavors. These activities attract the prospect customers, but the location and design is also important in marketing the resort business. Good facilities are also appealing to the guests like Jacuzzi, scenic views, and safety devices. Resorts and hotels became popular alongside each other. Hotels developed not long after public baths in Rome and spas in Europe and North America became popular.
It was actually cited in the Bible that during the ancient times, there were rooms for rent or traveler’s inn existing way back then. Usually, rooms contain basic necessities for the guests, but as time went by, the conveniences offered became diverse. As the facilities became more varied, cost also raises up to a certain price, depending on what rate of hotel it is. In order to provide more quality and more effective services to the consumers, information technology has been widely used. Computer literacy and awareness is all over the world and technology has been dominating since then.
Business establishments have discovered the convenience that information technology brought and therefore becoming almost a necessity for every enterprise. There are many advantages conveyed by technology to different industries. These range from high-speed communications systems to complex, specialized databases to customized internal computer networks. These days, information technology and business became inseparable. There are many similarities between the computer systems used by resorts and hotels. It is because they have similar services offered to their consumers mostly in the reservations of the rooms and checking its availability.
To be able to serve their guests better, clear information regarding the rooms available for booking must be seen by them. More systems were particularly made for hotels that are also applicable for the resort operations. Examples of these are property management system, stock-control system and reservation system. CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK Planning Phase Analysis Phase Design Phase Coding Phase Testing Phase Implementation Phase Maintenance Phase Figure 1. 5 Eclectic Model Maintenance Phase Implementation Phase Testing Phase Coding Phase Design Phase Analysis Phase Planning Phase
STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM Planning Phase 1. What are the resources available to the researchers? 2. What are the requirements needed for the study? Study Phase 1. What articles are needed and relevant to the study? 2. What models can be used in the study? Analysis Phase 1. Is there an existing computer system being used in the organization? 2. Will a new system make the service of the company more effective and more efficient? Design Phase 1. What are the different factors to consider in developing a new system? 2. What is the most efficient design for the proposed system?
Testing Phase 1. How does the new system work? 2. Does the new system work properly? 3. What are the errors encountered by the new system? 4. Can the system handle the volume data and incoming transactions easily? Implementation Phase 1. How can the actual implementation of the new system be simulated in order to detect possible errors? 2. How can the person-in-charge ne trained to use the new system? Maintenance Phase 1. How can the new system assure the accuracy of the information about the process? 2. What are the possible improvements in order to enhance the new system? HYPOTHESIS
SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY The significance of the study and the proposed system is to have a more efficient and effective handling of daily transactions and operations of the company. This study is assigned to create a system that will be more convenient and will make more accurate reports. Villa Concepcion Wet and Wild Waves, Inc. ’s manual recording of transactions shall be replaced by the use of a new computer system. The system proposed shall make the guests at ease and transact more conveniently. It shall also lessen the work of the personnel by minimizing the labors they have to do.
The projected computer system is deemed more reliable, accurate, and efficient. SCOPE AND LIMITATIONS The study focused on the following proposed systems: reservation system, and payroll system. It is mainly for the front-desk operations which consist of billing, payments, and reservations. Interview of the management and the personnel of VCWWI shall be held inside their premises. Figure 1. 1 System Development Life Cycle Figure 1. 2 Waterfall System Development Life Cycle Model Figure 1. 3 Prototyping System Development Life Cycle Model Figure 1. 4 Spiral Life Cycle Model