Biology

Describe the interior of bacteria. Have 3 main components: Internal membrane- regions of plasma membrane for respiration/photosynthesis, Nucleoli region-visible region where the DNA is held, Ribosome- that differ in RNA content 15. Prokaryote lack nuclei and generally do not possess linear chromosomes. 6. ) DNA is localized in a nucleoli region. 17. ) Prokaryote do not reproduce sexually, but they can exchange DNA between different cells. 18. ) Name and describe 3 ways bacteria exchange DNA between different cells. Conjugation- horizontal gene transfer where you have an F plasmid, donor (P) and recipient (F integration/excision Transduction- (laity/lessoning cycle) Transformation- when a cell dies the remaining DNA is taken up by another live cell 19. ) Define conjugation, transduction, and transformation.

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Conjugation- temporary union of two unicellular organisms, during which genetic eternal is transferred from one cell to another Transduction- generalized (any gene can be transferred between cells laity phage)/ specialized (few genes are transferred lessoning life cycle) Transformation-the uptake of DNA directly from the environment 20. ) DNA can be exchanged by conjugation via plasmids, by transduction via viruses, and by transformation through the direct uptake of DNA from the environment. 21 . ) Variation in prokaryote also arises by mutation which can be caused by radiation, ultraviolet light, and various chemicals. 2. ) In the laboratory, bacteria are grown on efferent substrates, called growth media, that reflect their nutritional needs. 23. ) Name and describe 4 ways prokaryote acquire carbon and energy. Photosphere’s- use energy of sunlight to build organic molecules from carbon dioxide Chemotherapeutics- obtain, energy by oxidized inorganic substances (chemicals) Photoreceptor’s- use light as energy source and obtain carbon from organic molecules produced by other organisms Chemotherapy’s- obtain carbon atoms and energy from organic molecules of other organisms 24. Describe prokaryote as plant and human pathogens. Give several examples of each. Normally heterocyclic bacteria. Plants (blight, soft roots, wilts, fire blight) Humans (Tuberculosis, plague, anthrax, pneumonia) 26. ) Name 3 sexually transmitted diseases caused by bacteria. Generator Syphilis Chlamydia 27. ) How are prokaryote dangerous to us and other life forms? Bacteria are everywhere and they can cause disease to other organisms if introduced to that environment. 28. Name and describe 4 beneficial roles of prokaryote. Cycling important elements- cycling chemical elements between organisms and physical environments Symbiotic associations- relationships between different pieces Genetic engineering- genetic code is universal Premeditation- remove pollutants from water, air, and soil 29. ) Give 4 ways prokaryote are involved in cycling important elements. Carbon fixation Nitrogen fixation 30. ) Distinguish between mutuality, commercialism, and parasitism.

Mutuality- form of symbiosis in which both parties benefit Commercialism- one organism receives benefits while the animal/plant is neither harmed nor benefited Parasitism- form of symbiosis in which one member benefits and the other is harmed Disease Pathogen Vector/Reservoir Epidemiology Anthrax Bacillus anthracic Animals, including processed skins Bacterial infection that can be transmitted through contact or ingestion. Rare except in sporadic outbreaks. May be fatal.

Botulism Colostomies botulism Improperly prepared food Contracted through ingestion or contact with wound. Produces acute toxic poison; can be fatal. Chlamydia Chlamydia dramatists Humans, sexually transmitted disease (STUD) Originate infections with possible spread to eyes and respiratory tract. Increasingly common over past 20 years. Cholera Brio cholera Human feces, plankton Causes severe diarrhea that can lead to death by dehydration. Fatal rare if untreated. Major killer in times of crowding and poor sanitation.

Dental caries Streptococcus mutants, Streptococcus spurious Humans A dense collection of these bacteria on the surface of teeth leads to secretion of acids that destroy minerals in tooth enamel; sugar alone does not cause canes. Diphtheria Crematoriums diphtheria Acute inflammation and lesions of respiratory mucous membranes. Spread through respiratory droplets. Vaccine available. Generator Engineers generator Humans only STUD, on the increase worldwide. Usually not fatal Hansen disease (leprosy) Mycobacterium leaper Humans, feral armadillos tit infected individuals.

Lime disease Boreal buffering Ticks, deer, small rodents Spread through bite of infected tick. Lesion followed by malaise, fever, fatigue, pain, stiff neck, and headache. Peptic ulcers Helicopter pylori Originally thought to be caused by stress or diet, most peptic ulcers now appear to be caused by this bacterium; can be treated with antibiotics Plague Yearning pests Fleas of wild rodents: rats and squirrels Killed one-fourth of the population of Europe in the 14th century Pneumonia Streptococcus, Macrocosms, Chlamydia, Hemophilia Acute infection of the lungs; often fatal without treatment.

Vaccine for streptococcal pneumonia available. Tuberculosis Mycobacterium tuberculosis An acute bacterial infection of the lungs, lymph, and engines. Complicated by the development of new strains of bacterium that are resistant to antibiotics. Typhoid fever Salmonella typhoid A systemic bacterial disease of worldwide incidence. Spread through contaminated water or foods. Vaccines available for travelers. Typhus Ricketiest typhoid Lice, rat fleas, humans Historically a major killer in times of crowding and poor sanitation; transmitted from human to human through the bite of infected lice and flea.

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