Bacteriological analysis of drinking water

A cross section of total 108 water samples from different sources was analyzed by standard criminological methods. To estimate the amount of fecal chloroforms in water samples, the most probable number (MEN) technique was used and it was found that amongst the total water samples (68. 5%) had total viable count and (39. 9%) were positive for Escherichia coli. This study highlighted the poor hygienic conditions of the water quality standards in this area of investigation. The related endemic health problems can be checked by taking appropriate preventive measures to forestall the major outbreak in the future.

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Key words: Fecal chloroforms, most probable number (MEN) and Escherichia coli. INTRODUCTION Quality water is vital to the health, social and economic well being of people. Harmful bacteria, parasites, and viruses are invisible to the naked eye, so water, which looks and taste good, may not necessarily be safe to drink. These microbes can exist in surface and ground water supplies, and can cause immediate sickness in humans if not properly treated (PARA, 2003). The general public today has always been found facing the problems for the availability of safe drinking water as like diarrhea etc. s being the leading cause of mortality particularly among the children. The importance of table drinking water is therefore obvious, emphasizing the need for its utilization (Named et al. , 2004). Diseases that spread through the contaminated water principally in areas of poor sanitation are Hepatitis A, Hepatitis E and Typhoid fever, diarrhea and dysentery etc. (Light, 2000). The total aerobic plate count (TACT) is used as an indicator for determination of the level of contamination in water and its standards for human consumption (Guarantee Analytical Laboratories, 2003).

Chloroform is a group of bacteria comprising, gram negative, non spore forming aerobic rods and many of Hess organisms are classified in the genera Escherichia, Interrogator or Kielbasa (Khan et al. , 2001). Out of the total chloroforms, the E. Coli a subgroup of fecal chloroform bacteria declassification’s pollution of the contaminated water (Khan et al. , 2001; Maturing and peeler, 1998; Areola, 2003). MATERIALS AND METHODS *Corresponding author. E-mail: [email protected] Com. Tell: +92-300-5314922.

In this study 108 water samples from pert-urban areas of Table 1 . Analysis of various types of water samples for detection of viable count and fecal. S. No 2. 3. 4. Total Source of water Bore Water Bottle Water Filter Water Total samples , 08 :call chloroform )soloist 16 43 Fecal chloroform negative 20 18 9 65 Viable count positive 34 6 15 19 74 50 40 total samples 30 Viable Count positive Samples 10 Positive Samples Bore Bottle Filter Tape water water water water Figure 1 . Pie chart for the total samples studied.

Rawlins and Islamabad were ascertained to look into the extent of drinking water quality with reference to bacterial contamination. Water from different sources and types such as bore water, bottled water, filter water and tape water was checked for residence of fecal chloroforms as an indicator of the sewage pollution and contamination. The study was conducted in collaboration with National Institute of Health, Islamabad during the period July to August, 2009. Figure 2. The comparative analysis of total viable count and fecal chloroform in different sources of water.

A total of 108 water samples which were physically transparent having no smell, detoured from various sources were studied for bacteriological analysis (Table Microbiological analysis of bore water Standard qualitative analysis of water The maximum probable number (MEN) procedure was used for the analysis and observation of fecal contamination in water samples. The three basic steps to detect chloroform bacteria in water such as presumptive, confirmed and completed tests were performed sequentially on each sample under analysis.

Plate count agar, Lactose broth and Monkeys broth were used for presumptive test, Eosin-methyl blue agar plates and brilliant green lactose bile broth were used for confirmed test and completed tests. In the current study, drinking water samples of different resources collected from various localities of Islamabad and Rawlins were screened for level of microbial contamination and to evaluate the quality and suitability being consumed by humans in this region.

In water the most commonly used indicators are total viable count, total chloroform bacteria, fecal chloroform and Escherichia coli as their presence in drinking water represents a health concern because such supplies are usually associated with sewage or animal wastes. Viable count (TV) and fecal contamination. Tightest viable count 3 x 103 COIF/ml was recorded in the sample tit lab no. 172-D. It was also found that 52. 4% samples of the bore water were contaminated with fecal chloroforms (Table 2).

The contamination in bore water was due to its close proximity to sewage and drainage systems in the area. In a study by Civilized et al. (2007) it was seen that half of the samples were positive for fecal contamination, however, the bore water contains lesser or no microbial count under the normal circumstances. Microbiological analysis of bottled water Total 20 samples of bottled water were examined for bacterial contamination and fecal chloroforms. The viable aunt was found in 6 samples, highest of which was 3 x 10 COIF/mail sample with lab no 177-A.

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