Hypoglycaemic and Hypolipidaemic Effects of Withania somnifera Root and Leaf Extracts on Alloxan-lnduced Diabetic Rats Rajangam Udayakumar,l Sampath Kasthurirengan,2 ThankaraJ Salammal Mariashibu,2 Manoharan Rajesh,2 Vasudevan Ramesh Anbazhagan,2 Sei Chang Kim,l Andy Ganapathi,1,2 and Chang Won Choil,* In the present study, the key gluconeogenic enzyme G6P activity was assayed in liver of diabetic rats because the liver is the main organ responsible for maintaining homeostasis of blood glucose.
The activity of G6P is enhanced during diabetes . The dearrangement in carbohydrate metabolism results in impaired glucose homeostasis leading to hyperglycaemia. WSREt and WSLEt replenished liver glycogen stores and suppressed the hepatic gluconeogenesis by decreasing activity of G6P. This result is accordance with the report of Bhavapriya et al. , in that the increased G6P activity is reversed by Aavirai kudineer (a herbal formulation) in diabetic rats. In the present study the activities of AST, AL T, ACP and ALP in serum were altered in DM.
In diabetic animals, the changes in the levels of AST, AL T, ACP nd ALP are directly related to changes in metabolism in which the enzymes are involved. The increased activities of transaminases, which are active in the absence of insulin due to the availability of amino acids in the blood of DM [30,33] and are also responsible for the increased gluconeogenesis and ketogenesis. The restoration of AST and ALT to their respective normal level was observed in the WSREt and WSLEt treated groups. This is consistent with our previous report of the extracts of Chinese juniper berries .
AST and ALT levels also act as an indicator of liver function ence restoration of normal level of these enzymes indicates that the normal functioning of liver. Increased activities of serum ACP and ALP have been observed in alloxan diabetic rats . Alloxan treated diabetes caused lipid peroxide mediated tissue damage in the pancrease, liver, kidney, and heart . The increase in the levels of these enzymes in diabetes may be as a result of the leaking out from the tissues and then migrating into the blood stream .
Diabetes and hyperlipidaemia also cause cell damage by altering the cell membrane architecture, which results in enhanced activities of ACP and ALP in diabetic rats. In WSREt, WSLEt and glibenclamide treated groups, the cell damage might be reverted and which may leads to the decreased activities of ACP and ALP. Therefore, the present study clearly indicates that WSREt and WSLEt possess hypoglycaemic and hypolipidaemic activities in alloxan induced DM rats. 3. 8. 1 . Determination of urine sugar, blood sugar, Hb, HbAIC and liver glycogen The urine sugar was detected by Benedict’s method .
Fasting blood glucose was estimated by the o-toluidene method . Hb was estimated by Dacie and Lewis method  and HbAIC by Bannon’s method . Liver lycogen was estimated by the method of Carroll et al. . 3. 8. 2. Determination of were determined by the method of Zlatkis et al.  and Foster and Dunn,  respectively. PL was estimated by the method of Zilversmit and Davis . Lipoproteins were estimated by the method of Burstein et al. . Tissues lipids like TC, TG and PL were also estimated by the above mentioned methods. 3. 8. 3.
Determination of serum and tissues protein Serum total proteins and tissues proteins from liver, kidney and heart were determined by the method of Lowry et al. . Serum albumin was determined by he method of Reinhold  and then serum globulin was determined by the following formula: Globulin = total protein – albumin. 3. 8. 4. Determination of assay of liver G6P and serum enzymes like AST, AL T, ACP and ALP Activity of G6P in the liver was assayed by the method of Koide and Oda . The activities of serum AST and ALT were assayed by the method of Reitman and Frankel .
ACP and ALP were assayed by the method of King . 3. 9. Statistical analysis Statistical evaluation was done using One Way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) followed by Duncan’s Multiple Range Test (DMRT) by using SPSS 1 1. 9 for windows. The significance level was set at p
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Curitiba May/June 2013 Epub Mar 26, 2013 http:// Comparative effects of mature coconut water (Cocos nucifera) and glibenclamide on some biochemical parameters in alloxan induced diabetic rats Introduction Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic syndrome, initially characterized by a loss of glucose homeostasis resulting from defects in insulin secretion, insulin action both resulting in impaired glucose metabolism and other energy-yielding fuels such as lipids and protein (El-Soud et al. , 2007). As per WHO, 346 million people worldwide have diabetes and it is also projected that death due to this will be the double between 005 and 2030 (Rai et al. 2012). The beneficial effect of synthetic drugs provide good glycemic control but long term use have side effects and thus searching for a new class of compounds is essential to overcome diabetic problems (Prasad et al. , 2009). There has been increasing demand for the use of plant products with antidiabetic activity due to low cost, easy availability and lesser side effects (Sharma et al. , 2010). There are several published reports that plants like Aegle marmelos, Ficus exasperata, Annona muricata, Syzygium cumin’, Gymnema sylvestre etc. exhibit Adeyemi et al. 2010; Kang et al. 2012). So many people often combine the herbal remedies with oral hypoglycemic agent (Rai et al. , 2012). Functional foods with preventive and therapeutic effects on metabolic disorders are very helpful for the improvement of lifestyle-related diseases (Muraki et al. , 2011). The bioactive phytochemicals have become a very significant source for nutraceutical ingredients (Espin et al. , 2007). Among the various synthetic drugs, glibenclamide has been widely used in the management of non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (Figueroa-Valverde et al. , 2012).
The aim of the present study was to investigate the ffects of lyophilized mature coconut water (LMCW) in comparison with glibenclamide in alloxan induced diabetic rats. Biochemical estimations Serum glucose was determined (Trinder, 1969) using Agappe diagnostics, Ernakulam, Kerala, India. Serum insulin was measured with an automated immunochemiluminometric (ICL) assay according to the manufacturer’s instruction and was provided by Bayer Diagnostics (ADVIA Centaur insulin assay). Estimation of glycated hemoglobin was done using a Micromat2 hemoglobin Acc test, using a micromat II instrument, Catalogue No. 280-00016Xl (Biorad).
Liver glycogen was stimated by the method of Carroll et al. , (1956). Blood urea was estimated by modified Berthelot method (Wheatherburn, 1967). Serum and urinary nitrate concentration, was estimated using the Griess reaction (Green et al. , 1982). Serum protein was estimated by the method of Lowry et al, 1951. Albumin was estimated based on bromocresol green method using Agappe Diagnostics Albumin Kit (Doumasa et al. , 1971). Serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (SGPT) and Serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGOT) was assayed by DNPH method (Reitman & Frankel, 1957) using the enzyme kit from CML Biotech (P) Ltd, Ernakulam, India.
Quantitative determination of alkaline phosphatase was done as described by King & King (1954) using the enzyme kit procured from Dr. Reddy’s laboratories, Hyderabad, India. Creatinine in serum was estimated as per Bowers & Wong (1980). Activity of nitric oxide synthase was estimated by the method of Salter & Knowles (1997). Concentration of plasma L-arginine was estimated as described by Gopalakrishnan & NagaraJan (1979). Statistical analysis The results are expressed as the mean values with their standard deviation. Intergroup comparison was performed by one-way ANOVA followed by Duncan’s variance. Significance was set at p