-1 America Government Midterm Review 1. Evolution America gets name from Amerigo Vespucci 1756: Britain and France at war over land (French/lndian) Britain owned most of east America Britain retreated in 1771 First form of government: Articles of Confederation Louisiana Purchase: 828,000 square miles of land from France in 1803. French controlled from 1699 to 1762 when it became Spanish property. Napoleon Bonaparte revived aspirations to build an empire in North America so territory was taken back in 1800. sold to US for $15 million. 2. Constitution
Articles/Amendment (1-7) – Articles 1-3: three branches of government (congress, judiciary) – Articles 4-7: 4. Full Faith and Credit must be given to the states and states. Privilege and Immunity – one state cannot discriminate another 5. Tells how to amend the constitution 6. States can’t pass laws; people of the US promise to pay borrowed in order to win American Revolution 7. How the constitution is to be ratified – Amendments: fundamental rights protected by constitution; rights – Bill of Rights (first 10 amendments) added after constitution 1791 1 .
Freedom to religion, press, speech, petition, assembly 2. Freedom of petitioning the government, right to bear 3. Don’t have to house troops 4. Right to be protected from unreasonable searches, president, between the against debts we born with these was ratified in arms seizures – warrant must be present and with probable cause (Patriot Act: may search without warrant if suspicions of terrorism) 5. Due Process: notice of why and what the government is – self incrimination, double Jeopardy, takings 6. Right to speedy trial and Jury by peers 7.
Right to Jury trial 8. Right to be free from cruel/unusual punishment and (death penalty is not violation) doing excessive fines 10. PEOPLE have the power 3. Congress Bicameral: house/senate – House: 435 voting; depending on population, must be 25 years old (2 year term) must be appointed every 10 years – Senate: 100 voting; 2 per state, must be 30 years old (6 year term) Y Reapportionment: after each decennial census, the new population counts are used to reallocate the number of districts per state.
Each state is guaranteed at district regardless of population Duties (article 1, least one congressional ection 8): – declare war (control the military) – make laws – regulate the value of money Committees (senate, house, Joint): decide which bills and resolutions move forward to consideration by the house or senate as a whole. Committees have the power to supena. Committee chairman have enormous power and may steer legislation 4. President Y Duties: 1. CEO of USA – appoint ministers of government 2. Commander in Chief – orders military through secretary of 3.
Chief Diplomat – treaties are negotiated by president, ratified 2/3 vote = approved; becomes federal law 4. Chief Lobbyist . Head of State – “ceremonial” power, “boss” of the country – cannot declare war – can send troops where needed 5. Bureaucracy (implements laws) defense by senate Purpose: administer laws and policies passed by congress and president Types: independent agencies, government corporations, presidents cabinet 6. Judiciary Precedent: consulting previous cases to determine current cases Hierarchy: 7.
Civil Rights Dred Scott v Sanford (March 1857): slave Dred Scott appealed to the supreme court in hopes of being granted his freedom (US supreme court declared all blacks, slave or ree, were not and could not be citizens) Plessy v Ferguson (1896): Plessy attempted to sit in an all white railroad car, arrested for violating 1890 statute that provided for asserting that segregation stigmatized blacks and stamped them with a badge of inferiority in violation of the 13th and 14th amendments Due Process: no citizen may be denied his or her legal rights and all laws must conform to fundamental, accepted legal principles, as the right of the accused confront accusers 14th Amendment: result of civil war, entitled to equal protection of the law – Mississippi Senator: 2 – Mississippi Congressmen: 4