Assignment 23

Assignment 23

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Understand Child and Young Person Development

Task A
Table 1: Physical development
Age range | Explain the sequence and rate of development |
0-3 months | New born baby will move its head to look for a nipple or teat. When a baby is held uptight, they will usually start to make stepping movements. At about 1 month the babies will start to look less curled up. At 3 months babies will start to lift and turn their heads. |
3-6 months | At 6 months babies will start to turn their heads to see what is happening if they hear a sound or a voice. They can reach out and grab things and move it from one hand to another. They are now able to sit up with support in a high chair and are able to roll over from their backs to their fronts. |
6-9 months | At 9 months babies will start crawling or find ways to become mobile. They are also now able to sit up on their own without any support. At this age babies are picking up objects, handling them and becoming a lot more aware of touching different objects. They will start to feed themselves using their hands. |
9-12 months | 12 months old babies may either crawling, rolling or shuffling, some children maybe walking, others walk with assistance. At this age they may try to stand up by holding onto furniture and sit up unsupported for long periods. At 12 months they are now able to feed themselves using their hands. |
1-2 years | At this age the child will start to walk independently, walks down stairs with adult help. They will like push and pull toys whilst walking, will start sitting and pushing off with legs on sit and ride toys. At the age of 2 they will start to know what they want to do, touch, hold and eat. They are now able to move more confidently, climb the stairs and they are enjoying walking and being able to pick up things. |
2-4 years | Children of the age of 2 will start to refuse adult??™s help and want to do things by their own, although there may be times when they become frustrated. |
| At 2 ? years they will start to go to different extremes to get hold of an object that they want. They will start to enjoy playing together and enjoy new challenges. They will start to go on slides and climbing frames, will jump from low steps. At the age of 3 years they are able to start walking upstairs on alternate feet. At the age of 4 they start gaining in confidence and are able to become more independent. Will start to skilfully use their hands to carry out different activities such as coloured pens and using scissors |
4-7 years | Most children of this age enjoy being busy and playing cooperatively. At 5-6 years of age their physical development is less rapid. However at this age they are now having the ability to kick and control a ball. They will also start to have more readable handwriting. They will also have increased fine manipulative movements. At the age of 6-7 they are able to do many day to day tasks ??“ tidying away, laying the table. They are starting to have preferences and their own hobbies, also start exploring new things like ride bicycle without stabilisers, balance on a beam or wall. |
7-12 years | At the age of 7-9 years they are now more able to do things more quickly, confidently and also more accurate. Their drawing and writing at this age is a lot neater. When they cut out pictures it is also a lot more accurate. Children aged 9-11 years old can now read, write and draw. Also children at this age have got greater coordination and they have got more speed when carrying out both fine and large movements. |
12-16 years | The girls and boys of this age start to feel their body changes. This is when their bodies begin to prepare for adulthood. Girl??™s puberty usually begins at around 11 years; however boys may not start until they are 13 or 14 years old. This physical change can cause some embarrassment and anxiety. If any girls start to feel they are developing too quickly or not fast enough could lower their self-esteem. They may feel sment and anxiety,tsrt to feel their body changing.e without stabilisers,balances on a beam or wall. always hungry, appetite is great, also need for sleep increasesMost of them have skin problems, acne, which may be problematic. Sweating increases. |
16-19 years | Physically by the age of about 15-16 girls will have finished becoming women. However for most boys puberty will start at the age of 14 and it is likely to take about 3 years to complete. Occasionally in this ages group they could have poor spatial awareness as a result of the body shape changing quickly this is particularly common in boys. |

Table 2: Intellectual and cognitive development
Age range | Explain the sequence and rate of development |
0-3 months | At birth babies might be able to recognise the sound of their mother??™s voice. When a baby turns 1 month old he can focus and reach for objects, identify his parent??™s face as well as localise sounds (look in the direction of the sound). At this age, infants who kick or hit an object by chance making it move about will often repeat this action to keep the movement going. They start to understand routine patterns, as the presence of a bottle means that it is feeding time. At this age they can focus at a distance of 20-25 cm. Some babies at 3 months may have learnt the difference between day and night and they are able to sleep through the night. |
3-6 months | At 6 months they are able to focus in on an object and explore it. Toys and objects will be explored in their mouths as well as with their fingers. Babies start to recognize familiar faces, they also start to show a sign that they can understand what is being said to them, and then they will try to communicate back. |
6-9 months | This stage shows that babies understand the differences between animate and inanimate objects. They can play with rattles, blocks and soft toys but are unable to focus on more than one toy at a time. They can use either left or right hand to accurately reach for objects and they can recognise a familiar object even if it??™s been turned upside down or back the front. |
9-12 months | Babies acquire the understanding that even though an object is out of view or hidden it still exists. This is called Object Permanence. Babies can search for an object that has been hidden from view, as long as they observe the toy being hidden first. They show an understanding of how everyday objects are used for example touching a brush to their hair or putting a cup to their mouth. During this age range they will begin a discovery phase .This will mean that they start searching drawers, cabinets and many other areas that they take an interest to. They will also start to reveal more. |
1-2 years | At this age babies can understand and respond to very simple and familiar instructions and can imitate the words and actions of others. They love games where hiding and finding objects is the goal however, early in this stage, babies will repetitively return to a hiding spot if they have seen an object hidden there previously. They will start to show understanding of objects that belong together. For example they put spoons in a bowl and then use a spoon as if eating, places a teacup on saucer and they will take sips from cups. At this age they will start to cry and protest if they want something and do not get it. |
2-4 years | At the age of 2 years they like to play their favourite games over and over again. They start to enjoy pretend play. This could include them taking an empty cup and pretending to drink from it, they may also give a teddy bear a hug. Also at this age they start to chat out loud and point out objects that they see and name them. They also like to play with building bricks and doing simple jigsaw puzzles. They like to do pretend play in the home corner. At the age of 3 years old they are beginning to understand more about what is happening around them and they start to understand the needs of others. Also at the age of 3 they are happier at being separated from their parents, this is because they now understand that their parents are going to return. They have a bigger interest in mark-making, painting and books. Most 4 years old will enjoy being around other children and they will also start to plan what they are going to play and also have a good idea of what they want to do. They will have good concentration on an activity if it has taken their interest. |
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4-7 years | Children of this age can play games with rules and enjoy simple card and board games, where turn taking, patience and cooperation are required. The 4 year old can identify and name 6 colours or more and can rote count to 20 or more. They use more speech now , also like being involved in word games, singing rhymes and can recognise many letters from the alphabet. At the age of 5 years most children would have begun formal education. However for some children this could be a difficult transition period, especially if they are not interested in learning how to read and write. By the age of 7 they can count and do simple calculation. |
7-12 years | At this age they can now read, write, draw and do problem solving. At this age they will play cooperatively and learn how to use materials fairly. A chid can think logically about objects and events .They have an increased ability to remember, speak and express their views, learning to plan ahead and evaluate what they do, increasing ability to think and to reason, use other sources of information, have longer periods of concentration. Start to be curious about banned substances. |
12-16 years | At this age parents will still remain important but children will begin to show signs of wanting to be a young adult. For example they may want to start to go to school on their own by bus or walk. They have an understanding of more abstract concepts and they can also do more reasoning and problem solving. The pressure in school is likely to increase because they are starting to prepare for examinations. They may also start to think about their future studies. |
16-19 years | Young people who do not have a close group of friends at this age are likely to feel that they are missing out and they may start to feel very anxious. Also in this age group it is a time for young people to explore their own identity. They may start to express their preferences in clothes, music, food, activities that are different than their perants??™s. |

Table3: Communication development
Age range | Explain the sequence and rate of development |
0-3 months | New born babies will start to cry when they are hungry, tired or distressed. A 1 month baby will try to communicate their needs, and also their parents may start to understand the different type of cries they have. At about 3 months babies are not likely to cry as much and most parents are getting to know what their cries mean. They will also start to smile back when they see a smiling face. |
3-6 months | At 6 months they enjoy playing and they will show that they are enjoying it by smiling and squealing with delight. They will still cry to show distress, but is more easily soothed . If they want to be carried they will start to lift their arms up to show their carer that they want to be picked up. Babbles consist of short sounds like??™ ma ma ,da da??™, it is very good time to start looking ate books with their parents. |
6-9 months | The babies language is starting to develop a lot at this age, babbling has become a lot more tuneful and longer strings of sounds are now put together. From around 8 months, they start to cry when they are left with a unknown face. |
9-12 months | At ten months they start to understand more words, probably around seventeen, like bye bye. Babies use gestures to show their parents what they want by pointing hand and whines. |
1-2 years | At one year they are a lot more motivated and they may also be on the verge of starting to talk. They may start to say their first words at this age, although it may be recognisable as a word only to their carer ??“??? ta??™ to mean water. By fifteen months most of the children will have about ten words that their carers can understand. By two years most children have around 200 words , this is also a good time for a second language to be introduced. |
2-4 years | At 2 ? years of age their language is really starting to develop. Some children are starting to put two words together to express their ideas and some are even starting to use sentences. They will also start to use two-word compounds such as ???daddy gone??™. At 3 years of age they are making a huge developmental leap this is linked to their use of language. Instead of showing their parents/carers that they are not happy they are now able to say so. There temper tantrums will also start to decrease a lot more. They are able to express themselves to those looking after them. Their speech will also be understood a lot more. I t is the time when they start asking lots of questions, and also use negatives ??“ Don??™t like it, No crying, no! its mine…They copy words and sentences from their carers, from tv etc. Now their speech can be understood by others than their carers. |
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4-7 years | When they turn 4 years old they will be more fairly fluent in their speech for others to understand. However there would still be some odd grammatical mistakes and some interesting pronunciation of some words. Other than a few mistakes they would have mastered the spoken language. They will also start to ask many questions and they will also enjoy talking. At the age of 5-6 years they will start to enjoy hearing jokes and also making jokes. |
7-12 years | They will start to enjoy telling jokes and they will also enjoy chatting verbal arguments persuasion and also negotiation, long and complex centences. They will also start to make stories and do some writing that will show their imagination, it will also mean that they are legible and reasonably grammatical. |
12-16 years | At the age of 12 they start using longer sentences, usually 7-12 words or more, know what sarcasm is and how to use it. They can keep conversation and be able to change topics well. At the age of 14-15 can use more subtle and witty humour. Growing more and more, at their teen age, children start to understand and use slang terms with friends. They keep up with rapidly changing ???street talk??™. |
16-19 years | At this age being with friends is likely more important than being with family. If a young person does not have a group of friends then they are likely to feel that they are missing out on something and they may also start to become very anxious. Some people may experience bullying if they are not part of a crowd. To keep in touch with their friends they are more likely to use mobiles and other uses of communication e.g. internet. |

Table 4: Social, emotional and behavioural development
Age range | Explain the sequence and rate of development |
0-3 months | The contact between the mother and the baby is very close especially when they are feeding, which is happening very often during day and night. They will smile when they are asleep and you also start to see them smile when they are contented this will be around the age of 5-6 weeks. At the age of 3 months they are starting to sleep a little less and they are also far more alert. They will smile quiet often and they show that they know the sound of their parent??™s voices and movements. They will show an enjoyment at bath time. |
3-6 months | Many babies will start to get their first teeth at this age and this could be very painful experience for them. Babies at 6 months are also settled into a routine and they will have periods in the day when they will have a nap and then there will be other times in the day when they are very keen to be held and to have a play. They will have smiles of delight when they are playing with their primary carers. |
6-9 months | Babies learn that making eye contact, smiling and laughing can keep their carer??™s attention. Another favourite game is Peek ??“ a ??“ boo. At 9 months they will start to get excited when they hear words such as ???drink??™ or ???dinner??™. Babies are also starting to show who they enjoy being with. They will try to stay near their parent or carer. |
9-12 months | At the age of 1 they enjoy putting things into containers and then taking them out again, or dropping objects and seeing what happens to them as they become more aware of space. A strong feature of their play is the way in which they enjoy doing things over and over again. They may even keep taking off their hats and pulling off their shoes and socks. Food that they do enjoy is eaten however the food that they do not enjoy will maybe be thrown on the floor. They will want to stand near their parents and carers and they will feel uncomfortable if strangers approach them or hold them. |
1-2 years | They start enjoy playing with other babies, although they still can??™t share toys with each other and get frustrated from time to time. They love exploring environment if familiar adult is close by. More words are used for communication. Babies points to objects to show familiar adults. They will start to cry and protest if they really want something but they are not getting it. They can be quiet restless and can have a change of mood quickly this can be very tiring for parents and carers. Also start to become very distressed when they are left with people that they do not know, they will need a familiar adult if they are not with their parent/carer. When they are 2 they start to know exactly what they want to do, touch and hold. They can get really frustrated if they don??™t get what they want and start crying. This is often a way of communicating how they are feeling and this why this stage is usually called the ???terrible twos??™. They will do parallel play this means playing next to rather than playing with other children. |
2-4 years | At 2 ? years old they find it hard to wait and understand why they cannot always have what they see or do what they want. However they still want plenty of adult attention and they will also enjoy a cuddle. They will also enjoy spending time helping out an adult. Separating from a parent will still be difficult unless the children really know who they are going to be with. They will play alongside other children and they will start to copy their actions. During this year most children will move out of nappies. Now they can be more patient and wait for their needs to be met. |
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4-7 years | At the age of 4 most children??™s behaviour will be cooperative but this will depend on them getting plenty of praise and recognition that they get from adults. At this age they are also learning to be very independent. They can generally dress and feed themselves they can also organise their play if they are given the opportunity. When they are at this age they enjoy being around responsive adults, this is especially when they are being given responsibility and encouragement. Most children will be attending some pre-school provision; this is a play group, nursery or creche. This is important for them because they enjoy the company of other children and they are also beginning to develop friendships. However for some children starting school can be a difficult transition, this is because they have got to adapt to being part of a much larger group. At the age of 5 many children will start to have established friendships and preferences. Staying for tea or even overnight is quiet common and also it helps children to learn about other families. However children still rely on their parents to meet many of their emotional needs. |
7-12 years | From the age of 7-9 years the way of which children think and reason also shows itself as they start to be able to solve simple problems, they also enjoy practical situations in which they have to work things out for themselves. They will respond well when adults give clear explanations for rules and when their behaviour is acknowledged and praised. Reading and writing will become easier; however there may be variations in the speed at which children will become competent and confident in this respect. Children will also start to become more physically skilled. At this age most children are in school so this means that life in the classroom and playground is a major influence on them. This is also a period in which children may start comparing themselves to other people. However in some ways this is a part of the thinking process, as they are carrying on working out what they are like. They will have stable friendships. They will have a lot of enthusiasm when they are given areas of responsibility. |
12-16 years | At this age body changes can upset their self-esteem, need to resolve changes into adulthood, some are more assured about changes in settings, wants to spend more time with friends than family, peer pressure is a significant influence. Anxious over pressures at school, exploring boundaries with main carers. They may have mood swings. The sweet little girl and the friendly littleboy seem to vanish. They need love and respect of parentsand friends, but they may pretend not to care. They have a clearer idea ofright and wrong. They sometimes behave like children when they are under stress. |
16-19 years | They can have deep feelings of love and passion at this age. They have a better sense of who they are sexually. They can work through conflicts with othersand have more stable emotions. They want to be like their friends, to be normal. They fear being different. Friends are important but there is room for other relationships. The conflict with parents begins to decease. Concern for others increases. Boys and girls are more independent. They enjoy some family and community traditions. |

Table 5: Moral development
Age range | Explain the sequence and rate of development |
0-3 months | Babies at 1 month has started to settle into a pattern. They will sleep quiet a lot but however they will gradually start to spend more time awake. They will cry to communicate with their parent/carers. |
3-6 months | Babies show joy by smiling, cooing and laughing when fed comfortable or safe. |
6-9 months | They will show joy by smiling, cooing and laughing when fed comfortable or safe crying when distressed or unhappy |
9-12 months | Infants at that age can??™t understand right or wrong yet, but they start to understand the word ???No??™. A strong feature of their play is that they want to do things over and over again. If they enjoy the food that they are given then they will eat it however if they do not then they will throw it on the floor to show that they are not enjoying it. They can also understand more of what if going on around them and also they now understand more of what is being said to them. |
1-2 years | At the age of 2 they start to develop as an individual. However if they want something but they do not get it then they will start to cry and have a tantrum |
2-4 years | At the age of two they like to do things for themselves and if they are not able to then they get very frustrated. At the age of 3 having tantrums will decrease. They also start to understand more about what is happening around them and they will also start to understand the needs of other people. Most children would have started to attend preschool; this includes playgroup, nursery or creche. This is important for children because they enjoy the company of other children and they are also starting to develop friendships |
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4-7 years | A child at this age is interested in being good, but may tell lies or blame others for wrongdoings because of intense desire to please and do right. He/she gets very concerned with personal behaviour, particularly as it affects family and friends. Some children will start school, others not only be going to school, but they may also start to do activities like swimming, dance or music, as at this age they are more likely and ready to learn difficult steps, rules, etc. |
7-12 years | At the age of 9-11 years children will start to become fairly confident and they would have also mastered many skills. They would have also started to realise what they are good at and what they are not good at. They will be aware of the consequences of their behaviour, and they will think about things a lot more now before they actually do it. |
12-16 years | They will know the meaning of right and wrong. A child will try to weigh alternatives and arrive at decisions alone. They will be concerned about fair treatment of others. |
16-19 years | At the age of 18 they will have to decide whether they want to leave education and find a job or whether they would prefer to go onto higher education and get better grades. For young people who do decide to get a job or move to another college will be leaving a familiar environment and must adapt to new codes, relationships and expectations. |

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