Assignment 023 Understand Child and Young Person Development Table 1: Physical development Age range Explain the sequence and rate of development 0-3 months When born, babies show innate reflexes, such as swallowing and sucking, rooting reflex, grasp reflex, startle reflex, walking and standing reflex; in the first month babies become less curled up and the startle reflex is starting to fade; toward the end of the third month babies start lifting and turning their heads. -6 months When lying on front babies can lift their arms and legs balancing on their tummies; hey can reach and grab a toy and they can pass it from one hand to another; they can also roll from their backs to front; around sixth month babies are becoming able to sit with support (e. g. high chair). 6-9 months Babies can sit without support; they are beginning to crawl or find other ways of being mobile (bottom-shuffling); starting to use fingers to feed. -12 months Babies are becoming very mobile, fast crawling, standing up by the furniture, some babies walk along the furniture using their hands to hold on; developing abilities to handle objects and putting them into containers; babies able to feed themselves with ingers. 1-2 years At the beginning of this period babies are beginning to walk and around 18 months they are becoming more and more skilful on their feet, moving faster; toddlers around this age begin to sit and push with their legs to move on the sit-and-ride toys.
Towards their second year children walk confidently, they can run and climb; towards the end of the second year some children are becoming ready to start potty training. In the third year children start potty training; they become able to push with feet or peddle a tricycle; children can walk upstairs alternating their feet; towards the end of he this period children are skilful enough to feed and dress themselves; they are able to do threading, pouring and they can use scissors. years Physical development less rapid, however skills are becoming more refined and movements more coordinated.
Ability to kick and control ball; development of fine motor skills essential for handwriting. 7-12 years Good coordination of small and large movements; growing physical skilfulness means task can be done quicker, more accurately and more confidently; neater drawing and writing; accurate cutting. Between 9 and 12 children gain even better coordination nd speed in fine and gross motor skills. Around 1 lth year the bodies of some girls are starting to change (growing breasts) and some might start their periods. 12-16 years Gradual body changes in both girls and boys (girls physically mature quicker [around 15/ 16] than boys [around 17/18].
Fast body changes may affect spatial awareness which can become occasionally poor as a result. 16-19 years The maturing of the body is finishing with the full development of sexual organs; the body is taking a distinctive female or male shape. 023 Table 2: Intellectual and cognitive development Quite early on babies are able to recognise the smell of their mother and her voice; later they become familiar with voices of important others and they can be calmed differentiate between day and night (settled routine); babies become interested in mobiles and other objects around them.
Babies are becoming interested in what is happening around them, turning their head in the direction of interest; objects are being explored by hands and mouth. Developing fine motor skills allow babies for a better exploration of objects by handling and touching with fingers; around 8 or 9 months babies understand object ermanence (objects continue to exists even when out of sight). Babies are more aware of what is happening around them, they are starting to understand routines through signals (bib = food) Children enjoy pop-up and posting toys and in their 2nd year they are starting to have a go at simple Jigsaw puzzles and building bricks. -4 years Children pretend play with miniature world; they more interested in books, mark making and painting. In their fourth year children are able to concentrate and focus longer on activities which which caught their interest. Children begin to do some simple counting and calculations, recognizing letters is followed by gradual decoding of simple words and later by reading. Reading and writing is becoming easier, children start reading silently to themselves. Play becomes more organized and follows rules. Development of thinking and reasoning is demonstrated through independent problem solving. tarting to understand more abstract concepts. Cognitive abilities are becoming further refined, leading to high level skills in young people. 023 Table 3: Communication development To start with babies express their hunger, tiredness or other discontent through rying; around 5th/6th week babies start to coo when content; in the third month babies start smiling and reciprocate smiles. Babies starting to understand a little of what is being said and they are starting to give some communication signals themselves (e. . raised arms when they want to be picked up). Babies become quite vocal, babbling with a differentiated tuneful string of sounds. They are also starting to understand various important key words connected with their routines (e. g. ‘dinner’). Babies clearly show they understand more of what is being said around them/ to them. Babbling is still main way of communication. First meaningful sounds/ words are beginning to emerge around 13 months, and at Language is becoming a powerful means of communication.
From connecting two words first children are beginning gradually to build up sentences and their talking is becoming understandable even to those who are not in regular contact with the child. Even though there might be the odd mistake in the sentence structure, the language toward the end of this period is becoming fluent and children ask questions and generally enjoy expressing themselves through language. Children are becoming involved with written language – they are starting to learn to read and write.
Reading and writing becomes easier now; at the beginning of this period children enjoy telling Jokes to others; apart from chatting, children are beginning to be able to form a simple argument and be persuasive, they are becoming increasingly able to negotiate with others. Their writing shows more grammatical awareness as well as own imagination. Reading and writing skills are becoming very good and children are becoming increasingly skilful in negotiating and persuasion of others (peers and adults).
Communication with peers is becoming very important; differentiation between formal and informal language and its use in real life is becoming more and more important; young people use different means to communicate (via phones, mobile messaging, emails, facebook, etc. ). First social contacts are being established mainly during feeding; at the end of the first month babies start to show first smiles which then gradually become response to familiar faces. Babies smile and squeal with delight when playing with familiar others.
Babies try to stay close to their primary carers and around 8 months babies may ecome distressed when their primary carer leaves. Babies are fixed on their carers and do not want to be with strangers. Children start notice other children around them and they show some interest in them and later start parallel play. They also start show some frustrations and tantrums as they gradually discover some boundaries. Children play alongside others and may start copying their actions. Around the third year children become more aware of others and their needs which also reflects in their play which is gradually starting to be more and more cooperative.
Children enjoy being praised by adults. Developing language is helping children to form better relationships and children begin to show some preferences in friendships. Friendships are becoming more stable and more important and may influence decision making (if my friend is doing something I might be more likely doing it also). themselves to others. Children enjoy being given some responsibilities. Friends and friendships are very important and gradually opinions from friends might feel more important that those of parents/ carers.
This leads to exploration and challenge of the boundaries of relationships as well as learning to deal with isagreements, arguments, etc. There are anxieties coming from pressures from school. Young people enjoy being with their friends, they are finding discovering their own identity and sense of belonging to a group/ groups of specific characteristics which defines for them who they are (religious groups, sport group, goth, etc. ) 023 Table 5: Moral development Children might start paying attention to “no” and might stop their behaviour for a moment.
Children are beginning to understand “no” and they start using it themselves. At the beginning of this phase still no understanding what is right or wrong but hildren understand when they are said “No”. Later they become able to follow some simple rules. Around 4 years children are becoming thoughtful at times but most of the times will decide what to do on the basis of adult approval. Children are beginning to understand rules; they try to understand them, follow them and may attempt to create their own rules where no rules are given (made-up game with friends).
Children share their knowledge of rules with others and will readily point out if someone breaks the rules. Later they are becoming more aware of behaviour consequences and they are generally becoming more thoughtful. Children are beginning to be aware of a bigger picture – rules of communities and societies and they are beginning to understand the need for that. There is a interest in moral issues, finding out that right and wrong is not always black and white. Questioning and testing of rules. Answer the following questions. 1.
What is the difference between ‘sequence’ of development and ‘rate’ of development? 2. Why is the difference important? QI. What is the difference between a sequence of development and rate of development? Sequence of development is the order in which development occurs, e. . children are able to sit before they learn to crawl. The order of the sequences in development are always the same (even though there might be some individual differences: babies always learn to move about before standing up and walking, but some babies bottom-shuffle instead of crawling).
Rate, on the other hand, is the speed in which individuals go through the stages/ sequences of development. Most children learn to walk when they are about 12 months old. However, some babies might be ready to walk when they are 10 months old and others when they are 15 months old. Individuals might also be developing with different rate in different areas, e. g. some children might be developing quickly physically, but their speech might be delayed. These individual differences are results of genetic predispositions and other biological influences as well as environmental stimulation.
Q2. Why is the difference important? Knowing the sequences of development in different areas is important for practitioners to be able to plan accordingly and therefore to support the development in individuals. The rate of the development is important in terms of ecognizing any atypical development and recommending/ searching any additional interventions when needed. TASKB Complete table; Research and report Complete a table as shown on the following page, identifying the different personal and external factors that influence children and young people’s development. Ref 2. 1, 2. 2) 82 theories of development. This report should identify how these theories have influenced current practice and include the following: Cognitive (e. g. Piaget) Psychoanalytic (e. g. Freud) Humanist (e. g. Maslow) Social learning (e. g. Bandura) Operant conditioning (e. g. Skinner) Behaviourist (e. g. Watson) Social pedagogy. Over the years there have been many theories trying to explain certain aspects of development, behaviour, learning, etc.
In the following text we will look at the most influential theories which are being used by practitioners in better understanding as well as day to day work with children and young people. After a brief description of how an individual theory was founded, we will discuss the key points for work at nurseries. Theory of cognitive development (Constructivist approach) Theory of cognitive development is connected with the name of Jean Piaget 1896-1980) who through work on intelligence tests started to notice how children at same stages make very similar mistakes in their tasks and problem solving approaches.
Piaget then closely observed his own children, capturing their development in details and later using these observations to create a theory of cognitive development. Piaget considered children as active learners who create ‘schemas’ (believes) about the world based on their experiences. This is how they make sense about what is happening around them. However, a child’s schemas are going to be challanged time to time by new and unexpected experiences and as a esult existing schema will have to adapted to fit these in (e. g. ouching something hot will alter the notion that everything is safe to touch and child will learn that certain objects can hurt when being touched). Piaget’s theory influenced the practice by having a ‘child-centred’ approach. In our setting, for example, we make regular observations on what our children are interested in and what they like to play/ do. After careful evaluations and identifications of possible next steps of development we plan activities which as well as reflecting children ‘s interest also urther challenge them to encourage the development.
Psychoanalytic theory of personality Sigmund Freud (1856-1939) suggested that every personality has got three parts to it – ‘d, ego and superego. We all are born with ‘d, which is the part of our personality that is driven by our desires and reflects in pleasure-seeking behaviour. ld is selfish and passionate and it is purely after satisfying its needs, known as ‘gratification’. However, through social contact and learning babies/children gradually learn to be aware of the outside world and eventually of needs of others. They will be developing